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Germany WW2 Timeline

Authored By Dan Alex | Last Updated: 5/19/2014

Although fielding new doctrine and technology during the conflict, the German war machine was stopped - for a second time - after six long bloody years of fighting.

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There are a total of 754 WW2 German Timeline Events. Entries are listed below by date of occurrence ascending and are gathered from the overall SwwH site database as they relate to their particular series events.


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1939
Monday
August 21st

The German battleship Graf Spee leaves Wilhelmshaven for the North Atlantic. She is commanded by Captain Hans Langsdorff. Her supply ship is the Altmark, which also leaves Wilhelmshaven.

1939
Thursday
August 31st

Adolph Hitler provides the final orders for the invasion of Poland.

1939
Friday
September 1st

German airborne elements begin bombardment of Polish defensive targets. At 6:00 AM, 50 German divisions making up Army Group North and Army Group South flood into Poland. Army Group South's mission is the capture of the Polish capital of Warsaw.

1939
Sunday
September 3rd

Athenia, a British passenger liner originating from Glasgow and traveling to Montreal, is targeted and sunk by German U-boat U-30 resulting the loss of 112 people. Athenia becomes the first naval casualty of the U-boat scourge in the Atlantic.

1939
Sunday
September 3rd

British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain announces that Britain is officially at war with Germany.

1939
Tuesday
September 5th

The Bosnia becomes the first merchantman to be sunk by the German U-boats.

1939
Wednesday
September 6th

Thirty-six Allied ships set out across the Atlantic in the first coordinated convoy crossing attempt.

1939
Friday
September 8th

German ground forces arrive at the outskirts of the Polish capital of Warsaw, covering an astounding 200 miles in a single week.

1939
Saturday
September 9th

Polish Poznan army units launch a counter-offensive against the German army at Kutno on the Bzura.

1939
Sunday
September 10th

Polish forces at the Modline fortress some 20 miles north of Warsaw fall under siege to the German Army.

1939
Sunday
September 17th

Polish resistance at the Bzura River north of Lodz finally surrender to the Germans. Some 170,000 Polish prisoners are taken captive.

1939
Tuesday
September 19th

German and Soviet army elements finally meet one another in Poland at Brest-Litovsk.

1939
Wednesday
September 27th

The Polish capital of Warsaw officially falls.

1939
Wednesday
September 27th

The German battleships Deutschland and Graf Spee are let loose on Allied shipping convoys in the North Atlantic.

1939
Thursday
September 28th

Polish forces fighting it out at the Modline fortress officially surrender.

1939
Friday
September 29th

The German-Soviet Boundary Friendship Treaty is signed between German representative von Ribbentrop and Soviet representative Molotov. Poland is divided into a western zone under German control and an eastern zone under Soviet control.

1939
Saturday
September 30th

The Graf Spee claims her first merchant vessel, the British freighter Clement, in the waters of the South Atlantic.

1939
Sunday
October 1st

The Graf Spee goes on to sink four more Allied merchant vessels during the month of October.

1939
Monday
October 2nd

The last valiant gap of Polish resistance - numbering some 4,500 soldiers under the command of Admiral Unruh - north of Danzig on the Polwysep Helski peninsula falls to the Germans.

1939
Wednesday
November 15th

The Graf Spee sinks the oil tanker Africa Shell off the coast of Madagascar.

1939
Monday
November 20th

The Graf Spee begins her return to a pre-designated waiting area in the South Atlantic. British cruisers Ajax, Achilles, Exeter and Cumberland begin pursuit.

1939
Wednesday
December 13th

At 8:00 AM, Captain Langsdorff orders his lightly damaged Graf Spee towards the port at Montevideo in Uruguay with British ships in close pursuit.

1939
Wednesday
December 13th

At approximately 12:00 PM, Graf Spee enters the harbor at Montevideo, Uruguay, with the intention on having her damaged repaired. With political pressure from Britain, the Uruguayan government offers the Graff Spee only 72 hours rest.

1939
Wednesday
December 13th

The Graf Spee adds three more vessels - the Doric Star, Tairoa, Streonshalh - to its list of sunken Allied targets. She begins her voyage towards River Plate near Uruguay for a final combat patrol.

1939
Wednesday
December 13th

The Graf Spee is spotted in the early morning hours by Commodore H. H. Harwood's British cruiser squadron.

1939
Wednesday
December 13th

At 6:14 AM, the Graf Spee opens fire on the British heavy cruisers Ajaz and Exeter.

1939
Wednesday
December 13th

At 6:40 AM, the British cruiser Achilles is damaged by shell splinters from the Graf Spee's guns.

1939
Wednesday
December 13th

At 6:50 AM, the British cruiser Exeter is heavily damaged by the Graf Spee, leaving only one turret functional and in flames.

1939
Wednesday
December 13th

At 7:25 AM, the British cruiser Ajax loses two of her turrets to the Graf Spee.

1939
Wednesday
December 13th

By 7:40 AM, the British cruisers Ajax and Achilles break battle and trail out of range of the Graf Spee's guns, though still in pursuit.

1939
Sunday
December 17th

Graf Spee Captain Hans Langsdorff mistakenly believes there to be a large Royal Navy contingent waiting for his exit out of Montevideo harbor. As such, he orders the Graff Spee scuttled. The German vessel is effectively eliminated from the war.

1939
Wednesday
December 20th

Choosing honor over justice, Captain Hans Langsdorff commits suicide, officially ending the reign of the Graf Spee.

1940
Monday
January 1st

Only 21 operational boats make up the German U-boat fleet at this time.

1940
Friday
May 10th

German airborne elements land across Belgium and Holland in advance of ground forces, capturing key bridges and routes.

1940
Friday
May 10th

German paratroopers land in The Hague and Rotterdam.

1940
Friday
May 10th

89 German paratroopers land and take the Belgium fortress of Eben Emael with its garrison of 2,000 soldiers.

1940
Saturday
May 11th

British and French army forces begin defensive preparations in Belgium in an effort to stave off the German advance. A long line of strategic defenses is contructed.

1940
Tuesday
May 14th

Facing light opposition, German Panzer Corps XV, XLI and XIX are free to set up three key bridge-heads covering Dinant, Montherme and Sedan.

1940
Tuesday
May 14th

Panzer Corps XV and XIX break through the Allied defenses at Sedan, allowing German forces to completely bypass the formidable defenses at the French Maginot Line.

1940
Wednesday
May 15th

After periods of heavy bombing all across Rotterdam, the Dutch surrender to the Germans.

1940
Wednesday
May 15th

The RAF sends up its first night-time bombing raid against Germany. Of the 99 aircraft sent, only one fails to return home.

1940
Wednesday
May 15th

German Panzer Corps cross into the north of France.

1940
Friday
May 17th - May 18th

Brussels falls to the German Army.

1940
Friday
May 17th - May 18th

Allied forces are in full retreat of the Germans, making their way towards the French coastline.

1940
Friday
May 17th - May 18th

Antwerp falls to the German Army.

1940
Tuesday
May 21st

An Allied counterattack against the German Army near Arras ends in failure as the attack is itself countered by another advancing German land force.

1940
Friday
May 24th

In a stunning move, Hitler orders his forces not to cross the Lens-Bethune-St Omer-Gravelines line, allowing the retreating Allied forces more time to reach the French coast.

1940
Friday
May 24th

German Luftwaffe bombers hammer Allied defensive positions in and around the French port city of Dunkirk.

1940
Saturday
May 25th

More and more retreating Allied units arrive at the French port city of Dunkirk.

1940
Saturday
May 25th

The German Army takes Boulogne.

1940
Sunday
May 26th

Hitler orders his army forces towards Dunkirk for the final blow to the Allied cause.

1940
Sunday
May 26th

Over 850 British civilian vessels take part in assisting military forces off of French soil to awaiting transports in what would become the largest military evacuation in history.

1940
Sunday
May 26th

Operation Dynamo - the all-out evacuation of Allied forces from Dunkirk - officially begins at 6:57 PM.

1940
Tuesday
May 28th

Belgium falls to Germany in just 18 days.

1940
Tuesday
May 28th

With Belgium out of the way, German Army elements begin making their way towards the French coastline in an attempt to completely eliminate Allied forces for good.

1940
Tuesday
May 28th

King Leopold of Belgium orders his army to surrender to the Germans. By this time, his government has already relocated to Paris, France.

1940
Tuesday
May 28th

With the fight gone out of them, the Belgian Army surrenders to the German 6th and 18th armies. Their actions, however, supply the evacuating Allies with much-needed time.

1940
Saturday
June 1st - August 12th

German Luftwaffe forces concentrate efforts on maintaining control over the vital shipping lanes of the North Sea. At least 30,000 merchant ships are destroyed during this period.

1940
Tuesday
June 4th

Some 40,000 French soldiers are taken prisoner by Germany at the fall of Dunkirk.

1940
Tuesday
June 4th

Operation Dynamo - the evacuation of Allied forces at Dunkirk - officially ends. 338,326 total soldiers are saved including 113,000 French troops.

1940
Tuesday
June 4th

German Luftwaffe bombers cease bombardment of Dunkirk.

1940
Saturday
July 6th

German ships begin operating out of captured bases along the French coast.

1940
Tuesday
July 16th

Hitler delivers Fuhrer Directive 17 as Operation Sea Lion - the land invasion of the British mainland to occur between September 19th and September 26th.

1940
Monday
August 12th

The first attacks on RAF airfields and radar stations are conducted by German fighters and bombers. Germany intends on destroying RAF air supremacy before attempting its land invasion.

1940
Tuesday
August 13th

At least 40 total Luftwaffe aircraft are destroyed by the RAF and ground-based flak teams.

1940
Tuesday
August 13th

"Eagle Day" is enacted - a four day bombardment of key RAF airfields and radar installations. Poor weather initially delays the assault and any bombing thereafter produces mixed results.

1940
Tuesday
August 13th

Portland is heavily bombed by the German Luftwaffe.

1940
Tuesday
August 13th

Andover is heavily bombed by the German Luftwaffe.

1940
Tuesday
August 13th

Southampton is heavily bombed by the German Luftwaffe.

1940
Thursday
August 15th

74 Luftwaffe aircraft launched from bases in Denmark and Norway are lost on what will be remembered as "Black Thursday".

1940
Saturday
August 17th

German U-boats are given the green light to attack any and all merchant vessels - whether armed or not - in an attempt to stranglehold the British mainland into submission.

1940
Saturday
August 17th

The RAF is forced to poach the ranks of Bomber Command in an effort to fill its dwindling supply of capable fighter pilots.

1940
Monday
August 19th - August 24th

Poor weather and overcast skies limit any major German bombing efforts over Britain.

1940
Monday
August 19th

Underestimating overall RAF fighter strength, Luftwaffe commander Hermann Goering changes offensive tactics and orders his fighters to tempt RAF fighters to duke it out in the skies as opposed to bombing them while still on the ground.

1940
Saturday
August 24th - August 31st

Luftwaffe bombing resumes. During this period, RAF airfields are hammered with the loss of 200 fighters. However, losses for the Luftwaffe number some 330 aircraft.

1940
Monday
August 26th

The first RAF attack on the German capital of Berlin takes place. Some 81 aircraft are part of the airborne raid.

1940
Tuesday
September 3rd

Due to consistent Luftwaffe losses and inconclusive results across the entire campaign, Hitler postpones Operation Sea Lion to September 21st.

1940
Saturday
September 7th

In an effort to break the resolve of the British people, Hitler orders the bombing of London over the bombing of strategic RAF airfields and installations.

1940
Saturday
September 7th

348 bombers and 617 fighters of the German Luftwaffe descend on the British capital city of London in a massive bombing raid.

1940
Sunday
September 15th

Two massive bombing raids are conducted against Britain. The German Luftwaffe sees some 300 total RAF fighters airborne, showcasing Goering's gross estimate of total RAF air power. 80 German aircraft are lost in total. This day would go on to become "Battle of Britain Day".

1940
Monday
September 16th

The German Luftwaffe redirects it sbombing campaign to now cover night-bombing of British cities.

1940
Tuesday
September 17th

With the unexpected results of his campaign against Britain, Hitler officially postpones Operation Sea Lion indefinitely.

1940
Friday
September 20th

Massive convoys breed equal massive measures - German U-boats begin operating in 20-strong "Wolf Packs" with coordinated attacks.

1940
Tuesday
October 1st - October 30th

German BF 110 twin-engine nightfighters take advantage of the new Lichtenstein radar systems to track, target and engage RAF bombers.

1940
Friday
October 18th - October 19th

An attack on two Allied convoys yields 36 sunken ships by the attacking German U-boats.

1940
Monday
December 16th

RAF bombers strike on Mannheim as revenge for the German air raids over Coventry.

1941
Tuesday
March 11th

The Lend-Lease Bill is signed into law by American President Franklin Roosevelt allowing the United States the unrestricted ability to help supply the Allies in their fight against the Axis.

1941
Monday
March 24th

Rommel begins his attack near El Agheila.

1941
Tuesday
March 25th

Prince Paul of Yugoslavia offers his allegiance to the Axis, signing the Tripartite Pact.

1941
Wednesday
March 26th

In Berlin, Hitler reportedly tells his high level officers "I have decided to destroy Yugoslavia".

1941
Thursday
March 27th

Prince Paul of Yugoslavia is forceably removed from power via a coup led by Bora Mirkovic and Dusan Simovic. Simovic is installed as the new ruler of Yugoslavia and quickly makes an effort to break Yugoslavia's commitment to the Tripartite Pact with the Axis.

1941
Tuesday
April 1st

The German port of Emden is bombed by six Wellington bomber aircraft.

1941
Wednesday
April 2nd

Rommel's forces reach Agedabia.

1941
Wednesday
April 2nd

Under the direction of German Navy Grand-Admiral Raeder, Operation Rheinubung is fleshed out. The operation calls for direct hit-and-run engagements with British merchant shipping across the Atlantic.

1941
Sunday
April 6th

Operation Marita - the dual Germany invasion of Greece and Yugoslavia - is put into action. Twenty-four total divisions are involved, including some 1200 tanks.

1941
Sunday
April 6th

Rommel reaches Mechili.

1941
Monday
April 7th

Rommel reaches Derna.

1941
Tuesday
April 8th

229 RAF bomber aircraft rain 40,000 incendiary ordnance on the German naval base at Kiel.

1941
Tuesday
April 8th

A massive German bombing raid on the Yugoslavian capital city of Belgrade nets over 300,000 civilian casualties.

1941
Wednesday
April 9th

The German Army moves on and captures the strategic port city of Salonika.

1941
Wednesday
April 9th

The German 12th Army encircles and defeats the Greek defensive line known as the "Metaxas Line".

1941
Thursday
April 10th - April 16th

Three divisions of British, Australian and New Zealand troops at the Aliakmon Line in the Vermion Mountains are defeated.

1941
Thursday
April 10th

The first US combat action against Germany occurs - this being the USS Niblack destroyer firing on a marauding German U-boat violating the US security zone.

1941
Saturday
April 12th

Vermion Line Allied troops are now redeployed to defensive positions around Mount Olympus.

1941
Saturday
April 12th

German forces launching from Romania, Austria, Hungary and Bulgaria along with an Italian contigent from Albania capture and secure the Yugoslavian capital of Belgrade.

1941
Monday
April 14th

The German Army destroys Yugoslavian forces at Monistar Gap, clearing a path into Greece. Greece units fighting in Albania are effectively cut off.

1941
Wednesday
April 16th

Allied forces in Greece are in full retreat at the request of Greek General Alexander Papagos who sees value is less fighting to save his country from total destruction. British Prime Minister Winston Churchill accepts the request.

1941
Thursday
April 17th

Yugoslavian leadership, along with the army, surrenders to the Germans.

1941
Sunday
April 20th

The Greek Army surrenders to the Germans and Italians.

1941
Friday
April 25th

Fuhrer Directive No.28 is issued by Adolph Hitler, calling for the invasion of the island of Crete through Operation Mercury led by General Kurt Student.

1941
Saturday
April 26th

German airborne elements attempt to capture the bridge over the Corinth Canal in an attempt to encircle the retreating allies. The bridge is lost in the attack while the Allies have already moved on.

1941
Saturday
April 26th

Allied codebreakers intercept word of the impending German invasion of Crete.

1941
Sunday
April 27th

Axis forces officially occupy Athens, effectively signaling the end of Greek resistance.

1941
Wednesday
April 30th

Allied forces based on Crete receive a new leader in the form of Major-General Bernard Freyberg.

1941
Friday
May 9th

HMS Bulldog acquires the first Enigma code machine during the capture of the U-110. British codebreakers set to work on deciphering the device.

1941
Thursday
May 15th

The British launch Operation Brevity against Rommel's dug-in forces, making little progress against the prepared defenders.

1941
Monday
May 19th

In advance of the Crete invasion, RAF fighters are relocated to Egypt for safe-keeping.

1941
Monday
May 19th

Allied codebreakers intercept word that Operation Mercury will commence the very next day. The Allies begin preparations.

1941
Tuesday
May 20th

The German heavy cruiser KMS Prinz Eugen and the battleship KMS Bismarck leave port for the North Sea.

1941
Tuesday
May 20th

Allied flak teams destroy as many as 50% of the invading German transport planes in the first few hours of the operation.

1941
Tuesday
May 20th

Operation Mercury is officially launched.

1941
Tuesday
May 20th

At approximately 7:00 AM, the first German airborne troops land at locations near Maleme and Khania.

1941
Tuesday
May 20th

At least 500 Junkers Ju 52 transport aircraft are utilized in the first wave of airdrops over Crete.

1941
Tuesday
May 20th

Between 1:30 and 2:00 PM, the second wave of German airborne troops take off from Greece towards drop zones in Crete.

1941
Tuesday
May 20th

In-air losses for the second wave of German paratroopers is nearly equal to the first thanks to the stellar Allied flak defenses on Crete.

1941
Tuesday
May 20th

At about 2:00 PM, the second wave of German paratroops land around Heraklion and Rethymnon.

1941
Tuesday
May 20th

The first day of the German invasion of Crete sees little progress as many strategic positions are not under German control yet.

1941
Wednesday
May 21st

German Army troops making their way to Crete via the sea are intercepted and pummeled by elements of the Royal Navy. Just 60 of these German soldiers live to see another day.

1941
Wednesday
May 21st

The British Navy is notified of the increase in German warship activity in the North Sea.

1941
Wednesday
May 21st

A German offensive against Heraklion is pushed away by at least 8,000 dug-in Allied soldiers.

1941
Wednesday
May 21st

In an effort to beef up Royal Navy presence in the North Sea, the aircraft carrier HMS Victorious and the battlecruiser HMS Repulse are called to action in support of existing forces under the command of Admiral Sir John Tovey.

1941
Thursday
May 22nd

A hunter-killer group of 14 Royal Navy ships, including the battleships HMS King George V, HMS Hood and the HMS Prince of Wales, leave Scapa Flow.

1941
Thursday
May 22nd

New Zealand troops are repelled from an attempt to retake the airfield at Maleme from the Germans.

1941
Thursday
May 22nd

The HMS Greyhound, a British destroyer, is downed by German bombers.

1941
Friday
May 23rd

At 7:22 PM, the Royal Navy cruiser HMS Suffolk and the HMS Norfolk spot and shadow the mighty German battleship Bismarck. Its location is radioed in to Vice-Admiral L. E. Holland.

1941
Friday
May 23rd

German dive bombers destroy the HMS Gloucester and the HMS Fiji, two Royal Navy cruisers.

1941
Friday
May 23rd

German dive bombers destroy the HMS Kelly and HMS Kashmir, two Royal Navy destroyers.

1941
Saturday
May 24th

The HMS Suffolk loses track of the KMS Bismarck.

1941
Saturday
May 24th

At 6:00 AM, the Bismarck fires a salvo at the battleship HMS Hood, striker her ammunition magazine, with the resulting explosion destroying the British ship leaving only three sailors alive.

1941
Saturday
May 24th

At 5:52 AM, the Bismarck and the Prinz Eugen fall under attack from Royal Navy ships.

1941
Saturday
May 24th

At 6:13 AM, the battleship Prince of Wales is damaged enough to pull out of the battle.

1941
Sunday
May 25th

German Admiral Lutjens orders that the Prinz Eugen break from the Bismarck.

1941
Monday
May 26th

Between 8:47 and 9:25 PM, the Bismarck registers two direct torpedo hits. In a stroke of luck for the British, the second torpedo hits the stern section of the Bismarck, jamming her rudder to one side, forcing the vessel to go into an uncontrolled turn.

1941
Monday
May 26th

Royal Navy ships open fire with their long range guns and close in on their prey.

1941
Monday
May 26th

At 2:50 PM, an attack group from the HMS Ark Royal consisting of Fairey Swordfish biplane torpedo bombers begins their attack on the Bismarck.

1941
Monday
May 26th

The Royal Navy hunter-killer group receives some help with the arrival of the HMS Renown, HMS Sheffield and the HMS Ark Royal arriving from Gibraltar.

1941
Monday
May 26th

A British Coastal Command PBY Catalina flying boat spots the KMS Bismarck 700 miles from Brest.

1941
Tuesday
May 27th

The German Army takes Heraklion and her all-important airfield.

1941
Tuesday
May 27th

At 10:00 AM, the Bismarck's guns fall silent s she takes on water and burns.

1941
Tuesday
May 27th

At 10:36 AM, the mighty German battleship Bismarck sinks into blue depths, leaving only 115 German sailors to recount her story.

1941
Tuesday
May 27th

At 8:47 AM, the Bismarck is now being raked from front to rear by the guns of the Royal Navy warships. The battleship HMS King George V and the HMS Rodney unleash their short range armament on the hapless German ship.

1941
Tuesday
May 27th

The first escorted convoy - HX129 - crosses the Atlantic.

1941
Friday
May 30th

The brave defense of Rethymnon by Australian soldiers finally falters under intense pressure from the German Army.

1941
Saturday
May 31st

By this date, Crete is firmly entrenched under German rule.

1941
Sunday
June 22nd

Operation Barbossa is put into effect - the German invasion of the Soviet Union.

1941
Sunday
June 29th

Russian army forces are encirlced at key cities across the Soviet Union.

1941
Sunday
June 29th

General Guderian's Panzergruppe 2 meets General Hoth's Panzergruppe 3 in Minsk.

1941
Tuesday
July 1st

Panzergruppe 2 and Panzergruppe 3 cross the Berezina River west of Minsk, heading towards Smolensk and Vitebsk.

1941
Thursday
July 3rd

Panzergruppe 2 and Panzergruppe 3 now form up as part of General Gunther von Kluge's 4th Panzer Army.

1941
Wednesday
July 9th

Gurderian's army moves south towards Mogliev.

1941
Wednesday
July 9th

Soviet defenses at Brest-Litovsk, Bialystok, Volkovysk, Gorodishche and Minsk fall to the invading German Army.

1941
Wednesday
July 9th

Panzergruppe 3 continues north to Vitebsk.

1941
Thursday
July 10th

Guderian's forces cross the Dniepr River 50 miles outside of Smolensk.

1941
Sunday
July 13th

Defenses across Smolensk are prepared under the direction of the Soviet 16th Army.

1941
Sunday
July 13th

The Soviet 20th Army arrives in Smolensk.

1941
Sunday
July 13th

The Soviet 19th Army makes its way into Smolensk.

1941
Wednesday
July 16th

Panzergruppe 3 heads towards Yartsevo.

1941
Wednesday
July 16th

Smolensk falls to the German 29th Motorized Division.

1941
Wednesday
July 16th

Marshal Timoshenko and his 4th and 13th Armies near the Sohz River counterattack the Germans at Smolensk.

1941
Thursday
July 17th

The German Army begins to tighten the noose around the encircled Soviet forces numbering some 25 divisions.

1941
Saturday
July 19th

A German High Command directive calls for the army to complete the destruction of Soviet forces around Smolensk and then head south to tackle forces in Kiev instead of marching on Moscow herself - this decision is viewed as the turning point to Germany's defeat in Russia.

1941
Tuesday
July 22nd

The Soviet counterattack at Smolensk is driven back by Guderian's forces.

1941
Tuesday
July 22nd

A Soviet offensive meant to break the German stranglehold fails due to poor coordination.

1941
Tuesday
July 22nd

The German Army begins to encircled in Soviet Army pockets held up outside of Smolensk, Vitebsk and Mogilev.

1941
Thursday
July 24th

The German encirclement of Soviet forces is completed.

1941
Tuesday
August 5th

300,000 Soviet prisoners, 3,200 tanks and 3,100 artillery guns are captured by the Germans at Smolensk.

1941
Tuesday
August 5th

The Soviet defense of Smolensk is obliterated and falls taking with it the end of the Soviet 16th and 20th Armies.

1941
Tuesday
August 5th

The drive to Smolensk nets a total of 600,000 Russian prisoners of war, 5,700 tanks and 4,600 artillery pieces.

1941
Thursday
August 21st

The first Royal Navy convoy on its way to deliver supplies through Arctic waters into the Soviet Union leaves Scapa Flow comprised of 7 ships.

1941
Sunday
August 31st

A report stuns the RAF by showcasing how only one-in-every-three RAF bombers actually it their targets.

1941
Monday
September 1st

German Army elements begin the shelling of Leningrad.

1941
Monday
September 15th

Finnish forces, siding with the Germans, now control the Karelian isthmus, covering Leningrad from both sides.

1941
Monday
September 15th

The Soviet fortress at Shlusselburg southeast of Leningrad falls to the Germans.

1941
Monday
September 15th

The Germans now control the southern end of Leningrad, cutting its citizens off from the rest of the Soviet Union.

1941
Thursday
September 25th

The Crimea finds itself cutoff from the rest of the Soviet Union by German Army forces made up of German Army Group South.

1941
Friday
September 26th - November 26th

Over the course of two months, Soviet Major-General I.Y. Pretov and his band of 32,000 Independent Maritime Army soldiers set up a vast network of defenses at the fortress in Sevastopol. The defense consists of three well-defended rings.

1941
Wednesday
October 1st - December 31st

As rations begin to run out in the encircled city of Leningrad, its citizens begin to starve.

1941
Sunday
November 9th

The Germans take the supply line route of Tikhvin, located east of Schlusselburg.

1941
Sunday
November 16th

By this date, Lieutenant-General von Manstein and his German 11th Army take most of Crimea with the exception of Sevastapol.

1941
Friday
December 5th

The Soviets launch a full-scale counter-attack along a 500-mile front encompassing 19 Russian armies against Field Marshal von Bock's German Army Group Centre near Moscow.

1941
Saturday
December 6th

No fewer than 17 German motorized divisions retreat from the Soviet advance.

1941
Saturday
December 6th

The Soviet 31st Army cuts 12 miles into the German lines.

1941
Tuesday
December 9th - December 13th

General Guderian's Panzergruppe 2 is cut off from General Kluge's 4th Army.

1941
Wednesday
December 10th

The Soviets retake the town of Tikhvin.

1941
Wednesday
December 10th

The Soviet supply route is restarted across frozen Lake Lagoda.

1941
Thursday
December 11th

As expected, Germany and Italy side with Japan and officially declare war on the United States

1941
Tuesday
December 16th

Amid the mounting pressures and expectations of his superiors back in Germany, Field Marshal von Bock requests reassignment away from Army Group Centre.

1941
Wednesday
December 17th

Field Marshal von Kluge is tapped to replace Field Marshal von Bock as leader of Army Group Centre.

1941
Wednesday
December 17th

Lieutenant-General von Manstein launches a major offensive against the Soviet soldiers holed up in the Sevastopol fortress.

1941
Friday
December 26th

Manstein's offensive gains substantial ground, piercing the first two Soviet defensive rings.

1941
Friday
December 26th

Soviet naval forces land army troops near Kerch.

1941
Sunday
December 28th

More Soviet forces land near Kerch via amphibious transports, bolstering Red Army power in the area.

1941
Sunday
December 28th

In the face of growing Soviet Army opposition, von Manstein calls off his offensive on Sevastopol.

1942
Thursday
January 1st - July 31st

Some 800,000 of Leningrad's citizens are evacuated through the frozen passage above Lake Lagoda.

1942
Thursday
January 1st - January 31st

Over the course of the month, three Soviet armies, under the command of Major-General D.T. Kozlov, are called to the newly created "Crimea Front".

1942
Thursday
January 1st

The German U-boat fleet now numbers some 331 operational vessels.

1942
Thursday
January 1st - March 1st

Off the east coast of the United States, some 216 vessels fall prey to the German U-boat scourge in this span.

1942
Wednesday
January 7th

With progress over the Germans being made on several fronts, Soviet forces launch another offensive to try and encircle Army Group Centre.

1942
Wednesday
January 7th

Along the Volkhov Front to the south of Novgorod, the Soviets launch a major offensive.

1942
Sunday
January 25th

The Soviet movement begins losing steam after consecutive weeks of fighting. Man and machine are beginning to show their limitations.

1942
Monday
February 2nd

Adolph Hitler approves of the order for retreat for German forces at Rostov.

1942
Thursday
February 5th

Rostov is officially abandoned by General Manstein's forces.

1942
Friday
February 6th

German General Manstein meets with Hitler and proposes a new German counter-attack against the Russians.

1942
Thursday
February 12th

German Army Group B is renamed Army Group Center.

1942
Thursday
February 12th

German Army Group Don is renamed Army Group South.

1942
Saturday
February 14th - February 18th

Street fighting begins between the German I SS Panzer Corps and the Russian 3rd Tank Army and 40th Army forces in Kharkov.

1942
Saturday
February 14th

RAF Bomber Command issues its "Area Bombing Directive", allowing the legitimate bombing of civilian areas.

1942
Tuesday
February 17th

Adolph Hitler meets with General Manstein to plan a German counter-offensive.

1942
Wednesday
February 18th

German forces are officially driven from the Russian city of Kharkov.

1942
Friday
February 20th

The Germans unleash their counterattack using the 4th Panzer Amry, 1st Panzer Army and the II SS Panzer Corps.

1942
Saturday
February 28th

The Germans recapture lost ground and push elements of the Russian Army back. The German army reaches as far in as the River Donets while General Vatutin's forces are surrounded.

1942
Sunday
March 1st - March 30th

The Soviet offensive near Novgorod is stopped by German ground and air elements.

1942
Sunday
March 1st - April 30th

Hitler and his commanders flesh out Operation Blue - in invasion of the oil-rich Russian-held Caucasus.

1942
Sunday
March 1st

The Avro Lancaster heavy bomber is inducted into RAF service.

1942
Sunday
March 1st - March 30th

The whole Soviet 2nd Shock Army is lost near Novgorod.

1942
Saturday
March 7th

German General Hoth and his 4th Panzer Army form up and launch an offensive against the Voronezh Front near Kharkov.

1942
Thursday
March 12th

Street fighting throughout Kharkov erupts once more as German forces enter Kharkov.

1942
Saturday
March 14th

The 4th Panzer Army surrounds the city of Kharkov.

1942
Wednesday
March 18th - March 26th

The Soviets and Germans both dig in within and around the city of Kharkov, preparing to fight another day.

1942
Wednesday
March 18th

The Germans complete the retaking of Kharkov.

1942
Friday
March 20th

British Convoy PQ13 sets sail for Russia but comes under fire from German U-Boats. Five of the 19 ships are lost.

1942
Saturday
March 28th

The British utilize the "Gee" electronic navigation system for the first time.

1942
Saturday
March 28th

234 RAF bombers drop incendiaries on Lubeck. 12 aircraft are lost.

1942
Wednesday
April 1st - May 31st

Over a two month period, German forces are resupplied and strengthened before a major offensive - Operation Bustard - to remove the Soviets from the Kerch peninsula. Among the resupply deliveries are 33 massive artillery pieces meant to destroy the Soviet defensive works at the fort in Sevastopol.

1942
Sunday
April 5th

Hitler issues the official Fuhrer Directive for Operation Blue.

1942
Thursday
April 30th

Spring over Russia brings about seasonal rains turning once solid and dependable ground into a muddy nightmare for both armies. As such, offensives are limited or stalled altogether.

1942
Thursday
April 30th

German Army forces partially regroup and recover from the constant barrage of Soviet offensives.

1942
Thursday
April 30th

By this time, over 1 million German soldiers have been killed in action since the start of Operation Barbarossa.

1942
Friday
May 8th

German General Manstein leads his 11th Army onto the Kerch Peninsula towards the city of Sevastopol.

1942
Friday
May 8th

Lieutenant-General von Manstein launches his assault.

1942
Friday
May 8th

Operation Blue begins.

1942
Tuesday
May 12th

German forces enact Operation Fridericus and attempt to take Izyum.

1942
Tuesday
May 12th

Soviet ground forces launch a pre-emptive offensive against German-held Kharkov.

1942
Thursday
May 14th

The convoy system is formally adopted by the United States in an effort to protect its merchant shipping in the Atlantic.

1942
Friday
May 15th

Manstein begins planning his next major offensive to take Sevastopol - this becomes Operation Sturgeon.

1942
Friday
May 15th

Sevastopol is cutt off from the rest of the Soviet Union by German Army elements.

1942
Friday
May 15th

Manstein's offensive results in the taking of the Kerch peninsula from the Soviets.

1942
Wednesday
May 20th

The 2nd Canadian Infantry Division begins training for Operation Rutter on the Isle of Wight.

1942
Tuesday
May 26th

Beginning at 7:00PM, the German 90th Infantry Division, the 15th and 21st Panzer Divisions and the Italian XX Corps under Rommel launch their offensive along the southern portion of the Gazala Line.

1942
Tuesday
May 26th

Rommel begins his offense against the Gazala Line, made up of some 50 miles of British defenses.

1942
Wednesday
May 27th

German forces south of Bir Hacheim make progress and begin to move northwards.

1942
Wednesday
May 27th

The 1st Free French Brigade at Bir Hacheim holds off the German progress.

1942
Thursday
May 28th

While trying to take Sidra Ridge, German Panzer force casaulties begin to mount significantly.

1942
Saturday
May 30th

RAF Bomber Command attack Cologne with 1,046 aircraft in the first of their "1,000 Bomber" raids.

1942
Sunday
May 31st

Rommel orders his forces to begin defensive preparations across a 10 mile stretch.

1942
Sunday
May 31st

As the Allied defense along the Gazala line holds, Rommel is forced to change tactics, now concentrating his forces against the British 150th Brigade near Sidi Muftah.

1942
Monday
June 1st - June 30th

June of 1942 marks the single worst month of Allied shipping losses, totaling some 834,000 tons of goods at the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean.

1942
Monday
June 1st - June 3rd

A German pocket develops near Sidi Muftah.

1942
Monday
June 1st

Nearly 30% of German tanks have been lost in Rommel's offensive.

1942
Tuesday
June 2nd

600 German artillery guns open fire on Sevastopol.

1942
Friday
June 5th

The Allies attempt an offensive to drive the German pocket back from Sidi Muftah and fail. 230 Allied tanks are lost in the attack.

1942
Saturday
June 6th

The German Luftwaffe is called in to bomb Sevastopol.

1942
Saturday
June 6th

The British 150th Brigade is utterly destroyed under the German assault, resulting in 4,000 British prisoners of war.

1942
Sunday
June 7th

The German artillery guns cease fire on Sevastopol. The bombardment on the Soviets has spanned five days.

1942
Sunday
June 7th

The German 11th Army begins their assault on Sevastopol from the north at 2:30AM.

1942
Wednesday
June 10th

The 1st Free French Brigade at Bir Hacheim can hold no more and retreat under the mounting German pressure.

1942
Thursday
June 11th

The German-allied Romanian Mountain Corps and 30th Army Corps launch their attack on Sevastopol.

1942
Thursday
June 11th

The Allies go into full retreat as the Germans advance.

1942
Thursday
June 11th

German forces breaking out near Sidi Muftah target the British 7th Armored Division near El Adem.

1942
Thursday
June 11th

The German Army breaks out of their pocket near Sidi Muftah.

1942
Friday
June 12th - June 16th

The German offensive against Sevastopol is repulsed by the 180,000 or so Russian soldiers holed up in the city.

1942
Wednesday
June 17th

Manstein launches another assault on Sevastopol.

1942
Thursday
June 18th

The city of Tobruk, defended by the 2nd South African Division, is completely surrounded by German forces.

1942
Saturday
June 20th

Artillery shells and Luftwaffe bombs rain upon Tobruk.

1942
Saturday
June 20th

At 7:00PM, the German 15th and 21st Panzer Divisions have made it past Tobruk's first line of defense, making headway into the city.

1942
Saturday
June 20th

Rommel begins his offensive against the defenders in Tobruk.

1942
Sunday
June 21st

The 2nd South African Division under Allied General Klopper officially concede defeat and hand control of Tobruk to the Germans.

1942
Saturday
June 27th

German forces complete their capture of Izyum.

1942
Saturday
June 27th

The Romanian and German army forces capture key hilltop positions near Sevastopol.

1942
Saturday
June 27th - July 28th

Convoy PQ17 loses 34 of its 36 ships to Geman U-Boats and surface ships.

1942
Saturday
June 27th

The Soviet Army is encircled and defeated at Kharkov, netting the Germans some 250,000 Soviet prisoners.

1942
Sunday
June 28th

German forces reach the outskirts of Sevastopol.

1942
Sunday
June 28th

By this date, over 90% of the Soviet defensive fortifications have fallen to the Germans.

1942
Sunday
June 28th

The German 2nd Army and 4th Panzer Army launch their attack towards Voronezh near Kursk.

1942
Sunday
June 28th

The German Army turns its attention towards the Volga.

1942
Tuesday
June 30th

Evacuation of Russian soldiers from Sevastopol begins with help from the Soviet Black Sea Fleet under Vice-Admiral F.S. Oktyabrsky.

1942
Tuesday
June 30th

German General Paulus attacks at Belgorod.

1942
Wednesday
July 1st

German General Erwin Rommel attempts to break through the Allied defensive perimeter at El Alamein.

1942
Wednesday
July 1st - July 31st

Hitler orders two directives in the operation against Leningrad. The first calls for its immediate encirclement and the second for its immediate destruction from land and air.

1942
Wednesday
July 1st

One last German push secures strategic positions throughout the city of Sevastopol.

1942
Wednesday
July 1st - July 22nd

The First Battle of El Alamein takes place with Erwin Rommel hoping to put a dent in the Allied defense near El Alamain. Rommel's forces consist of his Afrika Corps and three Italian troop corps.

1942
Thursday
July 2nd

The last of the Soviet forces are evacuated by sea leaving little to stop the German onslaught.

1942
Thursday
July 2nd

The Soviet city of Sevastopol officially falls to the Germans.

1942
Friday
July 3rd

The Allies put up a stubborn defense, repelling Rommel's offensive.

1942
Saturday
July 4th

Sevastopol officially falls to German control.

1942
Saturday
July 4th

German control and the subsequent round up on the city nets some 90,000 Soviet army prisoners of war.

1942
Monday
July 6th

The Soviet city of Voronezh falls to the German Army.

1942
Monday
July 6th

The German 6th Army reaches the Don River.

1942
Monday
July 6th

The German 6th Army moves on Stalingrad.

1942
Tuesday
July 7th

This date is set aside for Operation Rutter - the amphibious landing at the port city of Dieppe in occupied France.

1942
Tuesday
July 7th

Bad weather cancels this original date for Operation Rutter. Discussions begin on whether or not to nix the entire endeavor. It returns to the planning stages under a new name - Operation Jubilee.

1942
Tuesday
July 7th

German General Field Marshal List takes command of the new Army Goup A, made up of the 1st Panzer Army and the 17th Army.

1942
Thursday
July 9th

German Army Group South is renamed Army Group B and placed under the control of Field Marshal von Bock.

1942
Thursday
July 9th

The German Army begins its move towards Rostov.

1942
Monday
July 13th

Adolph Hitler assigns General Paulus and his 6th Army to take Stalingrad.

1942
Monday
July 13th

General von Weichs takes control of Army Group B from Bock.

1942
Friday
July 17th

Hitler diverts the 4th Panzer Army away from Stalingrad and sends them towards the Caucasus.

1942
Sunday
July 19th

German U-boats off the eastern coast of the US are relocated to better assault the merchant fleets streaming across the Atlantic.

1942
Thursday
July 23rd

Hitler issues a supplemental directive to Operation Blue requiring his 6th Army to take Stalingrad.

1942
Thursday
July 23rd

Rostov falls to the German Army Group A, netting some 83,000 Soviet prisoners as a result.

1942
Tuesday
July 28th

The macabre resolution of "not one step backwards" is issued by Stalin to his generals and troops.

1942
Saturday
August 1st - August 31st

Any further convoys passing to the Arctic to Russia are suspended for the time being as resources are pressed for service in the Allied landings occurring in North Africa.

1942
Saturday
August 1st - August 30th

German forces are strengthened by the arrival of another Italian division, a German parachute brigade and more tanks.

1942
Saturday
August 1st

De Havilland DH 98 Mosquito twin-engine fighters are assigned as "Pathfinder" units charged with lighting up ground targets via flares and incendiary ordnance for ensuing RAF heavy bombers.

1942
Tuesday
August 4th

Elements of the German Army cross the Aksay River towards Stalingrad.

1942
Thursday
August 6th

The German Army crosses the Kuban River near Armavir.

1942
Friday
August 7th

Elements of the German Army attack Soviet forces near Kalach.

1942
Sunday
August 9th

Army Group A captures the Maikop oil field on the Black Sea.

1942
Sunday
August 9th

The German German Army captures the strategic port of Yeysk and Krasnador on the Sea of Azov.

1942
Friday
August 14th

German forces cross the Kuban river near Krasnador.

1942
Wednesday
August 19th

At 4:30 AM, Canadian soldiers wade ashore and take on the German coastal batteries at Berneval, Puys, Pourville and Varengville.

1942
Wednesday
August 19th

At 3:48 AM, several Allied invasion vessels run into a German convoy, which actively engages the ships, ruining any chance the Allies held in the element of surprise. This event is a fore-telling of the day to follow.

1942
Wednesday
August 19th

4,962 Canadian soldiers, along with 1,000 British troops and a 50-man contingent of American US Army Rangers set sail on no fewer than 237 boats towards Dieppe.

1942
Wednesday
August 19th

At 5:35 AM, Allied armor makes it to the beach. Over half of the tanks are lost in the action.

1942
Wednesday
August 19th

By 11:00 AM, disaster has completely befallen the invaders. Many are trapped, forced back or dead to a prepared German defense.

1942
Wednesday
August 19th

This date is targeted for Operation Jubilee.

1942
Wednesday
August 19th - September 30th

A Soviet offensive aimed at smashing through the German lines fails.

1942
Wednesday
August 19th

Operation Jubilee is officially put into action.

1942
Wednesday
August 19th

At 5:20 AM, the main invasion force - made up of the 14th Army Tank Regiment, the Essex Scottish Regiment, and the Royal Hamilton Light Infantry - come ashore.

1942
Sunday
August 19th

German General Paulus and his 6th Army is ordered to attack the Soviet city of Stalingrad.

1942
Wednesday
August 19th

By 2:00 PM, all survivors of the Dieppe invasion have been rescued. Left behind are 3,367 casualties, wounded, prisoners of war or missing.

1942
Friday
August 21st

Nazi-allied French leader Marshal Petain celebrates the German victory over the Allied invasion at Dieppe.

1942
Saturday
August 22nd

German land forces advancing into the Caucasus are stopped.

1942
Sunday
August 23rd

Army Group B reaches the Volga River.

1942
Tuesday
August 25th

Stalingard is officially under siege by the Germans Army.

1942
Sunday
August 30th

Rommel begins a new offensive starting from Bab el Qattara that becomes the Battle of Alam Halfa near El Alamein. The objective is the high ridge at Alam Halfa some 13 miles through the Allied defensive perimeter in the south.

1942
Tuesday
September 1st

Germany Army elements, backed by Romanians cross the Kerch Straits.

1942
Tuesday
September 1st - September 30th

The month is spent ironing out plans for the Allied invasion of German-occupied North Africa.

1942
Tuesday
September 1st

The Germans establish a bridgehead over the Terek River.

1942
Tuesday
September 1st - September 30th

German progress throughout the Casucasus is slowed by Soviet resistance and fuel/supply shortages.

1942
Wednesday
Setember 2nd - September 26th

Convoy PQ18 reaches Russia despite losing 13 of her ships.

1942
Wednesday
September 2

Rommel's assault is thwarted, his tank forces suffering high losses in the attack - and his army is pushed back to Bab el Qattara.

1942
Wednesday
September 2nd

Convoy PQ18 sets sail for Russia, comprised of some 40 ships and beefed up protection through 17 destroyers. The escort carrier HMS Avenger provides air cover.

1942
Thursday
September 3rd

The Germans enact an offensive aimed at the heart of Stalingrad.

1942
Thursday
September 3rd - October 23rd

General Montgomery decides to make El Alamein a war of numbers and stockpiles his supplies to eventually try to overwhelm the Germans.

1942
Sunday
September 6th

The strategic Black Sea port city Novorossiysk falls to the Germans.

1942
Thursday
September 10th

100,000 incendiary bombs are dropped on Dusseldorf by no fewer than 476 RAF bombers.

1942
Tuesday
September 15th

The Soviet Army is unleashed on Voronezh.

1942
Thursday
September 24th

The German Army makes headway toward Tuapse.

1942
Friday
September 25th

With winter upon the German Army once more, Hitler orders a halt to any major offensives around Leningrad.

1942
Thursday
October 1st - October 31st

With a lull in the fighting, Soviet forces near Leningrad are able to receive much needed supplies and reinforcements.

1942
Tuesday
October 6th

Malgobek falls to the German Army.

1942
Friday
October 9th

The Soviet government hands all military powers to the Soviet Army.

1942
Sunday
October 18th

The German drive against Tuapse is stopped by the Soviets.

1942
Friday
October 23rd

XXX and X Corps begin their assault on Axis nothern positions.

1942
Friday
October 23rd

At 10:00PM, British XIII Corps hits the German 21st Panzer Division and Italian Brescia and Folgore Divisions in the south of the German defensive wall as a diversion to its north-bound actions.

1942
Friday
October 23rd

The Allied counter-offensive begins through Operation Lightfoot, a massive artillery bombardment of dug-in German forces.

1942
Wednesday
October 14th

Adolph Hitler stops all further offensives against Soviet targets in the region for the year and orders his commanders to hold their positions until 1943.

1942
Sunday
October 25th

Allied mine-clearing operations begin while combat continues

1942
Sunday
October 25th

Montgomery enacts Operation Supercharge and pulls some diversionary forces from his southern attacks to reinforce the north where losses continue to mount.

1942
Sunday
October 25th

The Germans enact a new offensive in the Caucasus.

1942
Sunday
October 25th

Four Allied brigades have managed to break through the German defensive lines.

1942
Sunday
November 1st

The Caucasus town of Alagir is captured by the Germans.

1942
Monday
November 2nd

As more and more Allied armor crosses through the German perimeter, Rommel orders his battle-weary forces on an eastward retreat, keeping his forces within easy access to the North African coast.

1942
Monday
November 2nd

The Caucasus town of Ordzhonikidse is captured by the Germans.

1942
Wednesday
November 4th

British X Corps makes a substantial gain in capturing Tel el Aqqaqir, running straight through the beleagured Axis lines, effectively ending the Battle of El Alamain in favor of the Allies. The victory is a major one for the Germans are in full retreat throughout North Africa. The action officially ends all Axis presence on the continent.

1942
Saturday
November 7th

Three Allied task forces - the US Western, Central and the British Eastern - approach the coast of North Africa.

1942
Sunday
November 8th

The Allied invasion forces reach North African shores.

1942
Thursday
November 12th

German paratroopers move into the area near the airfield at Bone.

1942
Thursday
November 12th

British paratroopers land near Bone and take the nearby airfield.

1942
Thursday
November 12th

German paratrooper forces attack the British paratroopers near Bone but are repelled.

1942
Sunday
November 15th

Army Group A reaches as far as Ordzhonikidze and Mt. Elbus.

1942
Monday
November 16th

Allied forces begin their move into German-held Tunisia.

1942
Tuesday
November 17th

The Allies capture Beja.

1942
Wednesday
November 18th

The Allies take Sidi Nsir.

1942
Thursday
November 19th

The Soviets push forward a new two-part offensive - Operation Uranus - north of Stalingrad and break through the Romanian-held defenses.

1942
Friday
November 20th

The Allied assault on the strategic city of Medjez el Bab begins.

1942
Friday
November 20th

German General Manstein is appointed the commander of Army Group Don.

1942
Friday
November 20th

Part 2 of Operation Uranus is enacted at the southern end of Stalingrad.

1942
Sunday
November 22nd

Two elements of the Soviet Army meets at Kalach, effectively encircling the German 6th Army at Stalingrad.

1942
Wednesday
November 25th

In an effort to resupply their troops, the German Luftwaffe is called upon to exercise airdrops of vital supplies to the German 6th Army.

1942
Thursday
November 26th

Medjez el Bab falls to the Allies.

1942
Monday
November 30th

German General Paulus and his 6th Army is contained by the fierce resisting Soviets in Stalingrad, putting Hitler's plans on hold.

1942
Monday
November 30th

Despite the consistent progression throughout North Africa, the Allied invasion offensive grounds to a halt in the face of growing German resistance at key junctions. The total liberation of North Africa will have to wait.

1942
Saturday
December 12th

While Hitler rejects any plea from the German 6th Army to retreat from their position, the 4th Panzer Army is used through Operation Winter Storm in an attempt to relieve the beleaguered German troops at Stalingrad.

1942
Wednesday
December 16th

German Army forces are called off from further offensives at Tuapse.

1942
Wednesday
December 16th

The Soviet Army puts Operation Little Saturn into effect and attacks Rostov.

1942
Wednesday
December 16th

The Italian Army goes into full retreat from the Soviet advance.

1942
Monday
December 21st

Soviet relief forces and supplies headed for Stalingrad are stopped at Myshkova.

1942
Wednesday
December 23rd

All further attempts to relieve Stalingrad are put on hold, indefinitely.

1942
Thursday
December 24th

The Soviet Army launches a fresh attack at Kotelnikovo, routing its Romanian defenders and putting them into full retreat.

1942
Monday
December 28th

German Army Group A is given the official order to retreat from the Caucasus region.

1942
Thursday
December 31st

The Battle of Barents Sea takes place. Convoy JW51B comes under attack from German surface ships comrpised of the battleships KMS Admiral Hipper and KMS Lutzow along with 6 destroyers. Six British destroyers are up to the task as they repel the much larger force at the cost of two Royal Navy destroyers. No merchant vessels are lost to enemy fire. The loss in battle forces the resignation of German Navy Admiral Raeder and leaves Adolph Hitler hungry for blood.

1943
Friday
January 1st

German forces at Terek retreat.

1943
Friday
January 1st

The H2S navigation system is delivered to the RAF for installation into bombers.

1943
Friday
January 8th

Soviet generals send in the formal request for surrender of the German 6th Army at Stalingrad, a request which is formally rejected.

1943
Sunday
January 10th

Soviet General Rokossovsky unleashes hell on the German 6th Army through thousands of artillery cannons and Katyusha rockets.

1943
Tuesday
January 12th

The Soviets enact Operation Spark and cut a path through the German lines clearing a path to Leningrad. This offers the citizens of the city some much needed foot rations.

1943
Tuesday
January 12th

Soviet troops make headway against the defensive lines at the Don River held by Hungarian and Italian troops.

1943
Tuesday
January 12th

German Caucasus elements make it to their bridgehead over the Kuban River.

1943
Wednesday
January 13th

German Army elements at Terek retreat to the Nagutskoye-Alexsandrovskoye position.

1943
Thursday
January 14th

U-boat bases at Cherbourg and Lorient are targeted by the Royal Air Force.

1943
Thursday
January 14th

In an effort to replenish and build up their army ranks along the East Front, German Generals proposed conscription service of the Baltic people for service .

1943
Sunday
January 17th

The German Panzer Corps at the Don are officially surrounded.

1943
Tuesday
January 19th

The Soviets retake the city of Shlusselburg.

1943
Monday
January 25th

A Soviet offensive splits the German 6th Army at Stalingrad.

1943
Monday
January 25th

German forces at Voronezh retreat.

1943
Monday
January 25th

German forces at Armavir retreat.

1943
Sunday
January 31st

German General Paulus formally surrenders his southern Stalingrad army to the Soviets.

1943
Monday
February 1st

A Presidential directive calls for some 250 American aircraft to begin offensive actions in the Atlantic.

1943
Tuesday
February 2nd

The liberation of Stalingrad is officially over.

1943
Tuesday
February 2nd

The German Army north pocket at Stalingrad formally surrenders to the Soviet Army.

1943
Sunday
February 14th

At 4AM, elements of the 10th Panzer Division and 21st Panzer Division under General von Arnim, launch their attack at Allied forces near Sidi Bou Zid and Bir el Hafey.

1943
Monday
February 15th

German General Erwin Rommel commences with his assault through Operation Morgenluft. His attack takes him towards Gafsa, Feriana and Thelepte.

1943
Thursday
February 18th

General von Arnim and General Rommels forces finally meet at Kasserine.

1943
Friday
February 19th

American armored forces hold up the German advanced at Kasserine Pass.

1943
Saturday
February 20th

The Americans fold under the immense German assault and Kasserine Pass falls to the invaders.

1943
Saturday
February 20th

Allied units move from Le Kef for the counter-attack.

1943
Saturday
February 20th

The British 6th Armored Brigade moves towards Thala and Sbiba.

1943
Saturday
February 20th

US forces move in to stop the German advance around Tebessa.

1943
Sunday
February 21st

The German forces at Kasserine Pass under Rommel await the Allied counter-offensive that never materializes.

1943
Monday
February 22nd

Allied forces hold the Germans in check at Sbiba, Tebessa and Thala, inflicting 2,000 German casualties and forcing Rommel to call for a retreat.

1943
Thursday
February 25th

Kasserine is now firmly in Allied control, the Germans having retreated and Rommel's attention now elsewhere.

1943
Thursday
February 25th

Rommel relocates his forces east and plans his defense against Montgomery and his 8th Army at the Mareth ine.

1943
Monday
March 1st - March 31st

The German battleship KMS Scharnhorst makes its way to Norway, building up the already potent German Navy force that includes the KMS Tirpitz and KMS Lutzow.

1943
Monday
March 1st - July 31st

Any further British convoy runs to Russia are postponed as supplies are funneled to other areas of the Atlantic.

1943
Thursday
March 4th

RAF Bomber Command numbers total some 950 bombers of various types. Most important are the Avro Lancasters.

1943
Friday
March 5th

For the first time, RAF bombers make use of the "Oboe" navigational aid in a large-scale operation.

1943
Saturday
May 1st - May 31st

By the end of May, 43 U-boats are sunk to just 34 merchant vessels.

1943
Saturday
May 1st

Allied aircraft are fitted with U-boat detecting radar systems.

1943
Sunday
May 16th

RAF bombers make their most famous raid of the war to date - this through Operation Chastise - as 19 Lancasters attack the dams at Mohne, Eder, Sorpe and Schwelme supplying power to the Ruhr industrial sector. 9,000lb bouncing mines are used in the successful attack.

1943
Wednesday
May 19th

Some 33 U-boats assail an Allied convoy. However, the streamlined Allied response nets zero ship losses and fatalities. The U-boats come up empty.

1943
Monday
May 24th

Due to dwindling results, German Admiral Karl Donitz calls back his U-boats from operations in the Atlantic.

1943
Tuesday
June 1st

The German U-boats are unleashed once more, this time operating in substantially smaller groups.

1943
Tuesday
June 1st - June 30th

British and American authorities work together to formulate the Pointblank Directive - a combined air bombing campaign against the air production facilities of the German Luftwaffe.

1943
Sunday
June 6th

The Allied D-Day landings in the North of France eventually render the French-German U-boat bases inoperable.

1943
Thursday
July 1st

No fewer than eight German U-Boats shadow convoy PQ17.

1943
Monday
July 5th

The Germans enact Operation Citadel - the assault on the Kursk salient. The operation begins at 4:30am but major elements are delayed until 5:00am thanks to intense artillery attacks by the prepared Russians.

1943
Tuesday
July 6th

Soviet Marshal-General Rokossovsky and his Central Front army engage in a counter-attack against the German offensive. The counter-attack fails but is enough to slow the German 9th Army some. A measly 6 miles of territory is gained by the Germans.

1943
Wednesday
July 7th

German General Hoth and his 4th Panzer Army move into the salient, covering some 20 miles of territory. Their advantage brings them near Pokrovka.

1943
Friday
July 9th

The Allied invasion fleets sail out to Sicily.

1943
Saturday
July 10th

The British 5th Division takes Cassibile.

1943
Saturday
July 10th

Operation Husky begins. Target - German-held Sicily. Some 2,590 naval vessels take part in the invasion which encompasses two army groups of American and British forces invading at two different coasts of the island.

1943
Saturday
July 10th

US 82nd Airborne Division and British 1st Airborne Division paratroopers land at strategic locations across Sicily prior to the invasion force's arrival.

1943
Saturday
July 10th

15th Army Group begins their initial assault to the south.

1943
Saturday
July 10th

Soviet resistance to the German offensives is so intense that German General Hoth is forced to bring up his reserves and commit them to the fight. The advancing Germans are slowed evermore by the stinky Soviet defenders, also made up of deadly anti-tank teams.

1943
Sunday
July 11th

Soviet generals Zhukov and Vassilevky are given total control of the actions in and around Kursk by Stalin himself.

1943
Sunday
July 11th

The Soviet Bryansk Front northeast of Kursk moves in on German General Model's 9th Army.

1943
Sunday
July 11th

The Hermann Goring Panzer Division engages the US 1st Infantry Division at Gela. US forces are assited by offshore bombardment from Royal Navy ships and repel the German attack.

1943
Monday
July 12th

The Soviets commit more tanks against Hoth and his 4th Panzer Army.

1943
Monday
July 12th

A huge battle involving more than 1,000 tanks of the German and Soviet armies duke it out near Pokrovka.

1943
Monday
July 12th

Soviet General Sokolosky moves against German Army Group Center and the 9th Army in a counter-offensive.

1943
Tuesday
July 13th

Adolph Hitler orders an end to Operation Citadel.

1943
Tuesday
July 13th

By this date, some 478,000 Allied troops have landed on Sicily.

1943
Tuesday
July 13th

Allied airborne elements parachute into Sicily and capture key bridges. However, a German counter-attack drives back any gains of the day.

1943
Wednesday
July 14th

British and American forces finally meet at Comiso and Ragusa.

1943
Wednesday
July 14th

German Paratroopers repel Allied forces from the Primasole bridge.

1943
Wednesday
July 14th

The Allies control key airfields across the island, allowing air support more resources from which to work with.

1943
Thursday
July 15th

Fighting in the Kursk salient officially ends.

1943
Saturday
July 17th

The Primsole bridge is recaptured from the Germans.

1943
Thursday
July 22nd

US General George C. Patton and his fabled 7th Army move along the west of the island at speed, claiming the Sicilian capital of Palermo in the process.

1943
Friday
July 23rd

German Army forces are pushed back to their original starting positions by this date.

1943
Sunday
July 25th

With Mussolini deposed back in Rome, Hitler has few options but to plan a retreat for his overwhelmed forces in Sicily. As such, he orders an official withdrawel.

1943
Tuesday
July 27th

44,600 Hamburg civilians are killed by RAF bomber attacks.

1943
Tuesday
July 27th

RAF bombers make use of "Window" foil strips to disrupt enemy tracking radars.

1943
Tuesday
August 3rd

Soviet forces of the Steppe, Voronezh and South-West Fronts initiate a new offensive against German Army Group South just outside of the Kursk salient.

1943
Thursday
August 5th

After some time, the British finally capture the port at Catania. Though a vital and strategic victory, their advance delays the operation some.

1943
Thursday
August 5th

Soviet Army forces move towards Kharkov, liberating the city of Belgorod in the process.

1943
Sunday
August 8th

In an attempt to cut off the retreating Germans, the US 7th Army conducts a flanking amphibious attack.

1943
Wednesday
August 11th

The evacuation of Axis forces from Sicily begins.

1943
Wednesday
August 11th

The US 7th Army undertakes another amphibious jump to head off the German retreat.

1943
Thursday
August 12th

Some 100,000 Axis soldiers are successfully rescued from Sicily. The rest are captured by advancing Allied forces.

1943
Sunday
August 15th

One last amphibious assault by the 7th Army is conducted. The Germans now in full retreat to the northern tip of Sicily.

1943
Tuesday
August 17th

Some 250 German fighters, already alerted to the bomber group presence, are launched to repel subsequent air attacks.

1943
Tuesday
August 17th

With only limited-range Allied fighter escorts, the first major air raid on Schweinfurt and Regensburg is launched. The air raid consists of 230 aircraft from the 1st Bombardment Wing and 146 aircraft of the 4th Bombardment Wing.

1943
Tuesday
August 17th

Bad weather delays the original 5:30AM launch time of the operation.

1943
Tuesday
August 17th

Aircraft of the 4th Bombardment Wing take-off at 6:20AM in an effort to reach its target in daylight.

1943
Tuesday
August 17th

The US 3rd Division gives the official "all clear" from their position in Messina. Operation Husky is a success and Sicily is firmly in Allied hands.

1943
Tuesday
August 17th

German Luftwaffe defense fighters attack the 4th Bombardment Wing formations passing over Germany.

1943
Tuesday
August 17th

Sometime between 11:46AM and 12:09M, the 4th Bomber Group makes their bombing run on targets at Regensburg.

1943
Tuesday
August 17th

At approximately 6:00PM, elements of the 1st Bomber Group begin landing back at their UK bases. Some 36 aircraft are missing.

1943
Tuesday
August 17th

At around 4:50PM, elements of the 4th Bomber Group begin landing at their pre-determined bases in North Africa. Twenty-four aircraft from the group are noted lost.

1943
Tuesday
August 17th

At approximately 3:00PM, the 1st Bomber Group finally reaches its targets after incurring heavy losses from German fighters. Their bombing run ensues over Schweinfurt.

1943
Tuesday
August 17th

At 11:18AM, the 1st Bombardment Wing finally takes off.

1943
Monday
August 23rd

Kharkov is retaken by the Soviet Army.

1943
Monday
August 30th

German Army Group Center is in full retreat.

1943
Wednesday
September 22nd

Royal Navy midget submarines attack the German battleship KMS Tirpitz. Though not sunk to action, she takes on enough damage to sideline her for six months.

1943
Thursday
September 30th

By this date, the Soviet Army has established no less than five bridgeheads crossing the Dniepr River, keeping the Germans at bay for the time being.

1943
Thursday
September 30th

The German Army falls as far back as the Dniepr River.

1943
Thursday
October 14th

Some 291 USAAF bombers of the 13th Bombardment Wing are once-again launched against Schweinfurt. Though 30% of German ball-bearing production is knocked out, 60 American aircraft do not return to home bases in the UK. The high level of losses in these raids forces the USAAF to temporarily suspend long-range bombing attacks into Germany.

1943
Thursday
November 18th

444 RAF bombs drop ordnance on the German capital of Berlin with only 9 loss to enemy fire.

1943
Tuesday
November 30th

The British and Americans devise Operation Argument to counter the Luftwaffe threat through a round-the-clock bombing offensive; bad weather postpones any action.

1943
Sunday
December 26th

At 7:30 PM, the KMS Scharnhorst is lost to action by Royal Navy surface warships, leaving just 36 of her crew alive.

1943
Sunday
December 26th

The German battleship KMS Scharnhorst and 5 destroyers engage convoy JW55B.

1944
Saturday
January 1st

A message to subordinates by US Army Air Force commanding general General H.H. Hap Arnold calls for the destruction of the German Luftwaffe before Allied landings can begin.

1944
Tuesday
January 11th

The first major Allied offensive to take Cassino is launched.

1944
Tuesday
January 11th

French Expeditionary Corps assail the outer defences at Cassino, achieving modest gains.

1944
Friday
January 14th

Soviet armies from the 2nd Baltic, Volkov and Leningrad fronts overtake German Army Group North in a massive two-week offensive.

1944
Monday
January 17th

The US is involved in their first major assault on Cassino.

1944
Tuesday
January 18th - February 9th

US forces begin making headway through the Liri Valley, capturing ground at Monte Calvario.

1944
Friday
January 21st

In the afternoon hours, an Allied convoy of 243 ships sets sail from the Bay of Naples for the beaches at Anzio and nearby Nettuno.

1944
Saturday
January 22nd

American forces hold the line at Mussolini Canal.

1944
Saturday
January 22nd

British forces hold the line at River Moletta.

1944
Saturday
January 22nd

By 12AM midnight, some 45,000 Allied troops and 3,000 vehicles are on the beaches.

1944
Saturday
January 22nd

Operation Shingle, the amphibious landings at Anzio, is enacted by the Allied. In lead is the US VI Corps under Major-General John Lucas.

1944
Sunday
January 23rd

German Colonel-General von Mackensen takes control of the new 14th Army headquartered 30 miles west of Rome.

1944
Sunday
January 23rd

The German Luftwaffe begins heavy strafing attacks and bombardment of Allied forces.

1944
Sunday
January 23rd

The Anzio beachhead is consolidated into a concentrated pocket on the orders of Lucas.

1944
Tuesday
January 25th

The Anzio beachhead continues to grow with Allied troops and equipment, making it a prime target for the regrouping Germans.

1944
Thursday
January 27th

The siege of Leningrad is declared by Soviet leader Stalin as over.

1944
Thursday
January 27th

The Moscow-Leningrad railway route is reopened in favor of the Soviets.

1944
Friday
January 28th

The Germans are driven back at Cisterna.

1944
Friday
January 28th

By this date, some 70,000 men, 27,000 tons of goods, 508 artillery guns and 237 tanks are ashore on the beachhead.

1944
Friday
January 28th

German Army Group North is pushed away from the city of Leningrad.

1944
Friday
January 28th

Hitler delivers an ultimatum to supreme commander-in-chief over Italy operations, Field Marshall Kesselring, to fight to the death and drive the invading Allied forces into the sea.

1944
Friday
January 28th

Von Mackensen moves six divisions to Anzio, some ten miles of the Allied beachhead.

1944
Friday
January 28th

The US 1st Armored Division captures the town of Aprilia.

1944
Sunday
January 30th

The Allies suffer some 5,000 casualties in the Anzio action by this date.

1944
Monday
January 31st

Von Mackensen's forces now number some eight divisions in strength.

1944
Thursday
February 10th

In a counter offensive, crack German paratroopers repel US forces and previous Allied gains are lost.

1944
Friday
February 11th

The entire US 142nd Regiment is destroyed.

1944
Friday
February 11th

A blanket retreat is enacted by the Allies in an attempt to regroup and plan a new strategy to take Cassino.

1944
Friday
February 11th

US and Indian losses mount in the offensives against German positions in Calvario, the town of Cassino and Monte Cassino itself.

1944
Friday
February 11th

The 4th Indian Division reports unacceptably high casualties when coming up against the stout German defenders.

1944
Friday
February 11th

The 34th and 36th US Divisions both report a high number of casualties from the ensuing offensives.

1944
Saturday
February 12th

Winston Churchill pens a critical letter to supreme commander-in-chief of Allied operations in Italy. In his writings he claims he expected to see "a wild cat roaring" and has seen nothing but a "whale wallowing on the beaches".

1944
Monday
February 14th

The offensive is detailed further, taking the latest developments into account.

1944
Monday
February 14th

American bombers strike the production facilities at Schweinfurt.

1944
Tuesday
February 15th

German forces, having never held a defensive position in the monestary proper, move into the resulting debris from the surrounding mountain slopes and set up solid defensive positions within the rubble.

1944
Tuesday
February 15th

In an effort to destroy the believed German defensive positions atop Monte Cassino, Allied bombers numbering 229 strong, lay waste to the monestary.

1944
Tuesday
February 15th

Following the Allied aerial bombardment, the second major Allied offensive to take Cassino is launched.

1944
Tuesday
February 15th - February 18th

The 2nd New Zealand Division assault is twarted and driven back, suffering high casualties.

1944
Tuesday
February 15th - February 18th

The 4th Indian Division is charged with taking both Monte Calvario and Monastary Hill.

1944
Tuesday
February 15th - February 18th

The 2nd New Zealand Division is charged with taking the railway station at Cassino.

1944
Wednesday
February 16th

Kesselring launches a large counterattack against the invading Allied forces.

1944
Thursday
February 17th

The Allies lose some four miles of territory but stand fast outside of Anzio.

1944
Saturday
February 19th

Better weather finally arrives allowing the RAF to send up its first 823-strong heavy bomber force. The target is Leipzig and 78 bombers are lost to the German defense.

1944
Saturday
February 19th - March 13th

The Italian winter makes its arrival and postpones any further Allied offensives for the next month.

1944
Sunday
February 20th

The German attack is more or less repelled, at the cost of 5,500 German casualties.

1944
Sunday
February 20th

American bombers and fighters take to the skies in force in support of the new bombing campaign. They number over 1,000 bombers and 660 fighters in escort. Twelve industrial target locations across Germany are hit. 21 American aircraft are lost.

1944
Tuesday
February 22nd

The Allies replace the ineffective Major-General Lucas with Major-General Lucius Truscott.

1944
Wednesday
February 23rd

Bad weather postpones any further bombing actions for the time being. The Allies take this time to recoup and repair.

1944
Thursday
February 24th

With weather clearing, operations of Big Week continue. 266 American bombers strike Schweinfurt.

1944
Thursday
February 24th

The USAAF 1st Division launches another bombing raid on Schweinfurt through 238 bombers and long-range escort fighters. Eleven aircraft are lost.

1944
Thursday
February 24th

A British bomber force made up of Handley Page Halifaxes and Avro Lancasters take part in a night-bombing raid on Schweinfurt, dropping some 2,000 tons of ordnance on the area.

1944
Thursday
February 24th

Over 900 American bombers are sent airborne to bomb aircraft-producing factories including Schweinfurt.

1944
Thursday
February 24th

733 RAF bombers strike at Schweinfurt in a night time raid. 33 aircraft are lost.

1944
Friday
February 25th

RAF bombers hit Augsburg with 594 aircraft in a night time raid.

1944
Friday
February 25th

By the end of it all, 3,300 Allied sorties are launched in the offensive and 226 bombers are lost. 290 German fighters are destroyed and another further 90 are damaged.

1944
Friday
February 25th

The final American air raid of Big Week is launched with 900 bombers against Regensburg, Augsburg and Forth.

1944
Tuesday
February 29th

Von Mackensen cancels the German offensive amidst mounting casualties and little gain.

1944
Wednesday
March 1st - May 22nd

The Anzio engagement is limited to minor activity for the time being, with the Allies dug in and the Germans trying to dislodge the invaders by limited means.

1944
Wednesday
March 15th - March 21st

The 2nd New Zealand Division captures German-held position with the help of Allied armor support.

1944
Wednesday
March 15th - March 21st

Against mounting casualties but with tank support, the 4th Indian Division gains ground.

1944
Wednesday
March 15th

Artillery guns open up on Cassino while 600-plus Allied bombers attempt to shake the German defenders.

1944
Wednesday
March 15th

A third major Allied offensive is put into action.

1944
Wednesday
March 15th - March 21st

Positions on Monte Cassino are officially in Allied hands.

1944
Wednesday
March 15th - March 21st

The 78th British Division makes headway thanks to the support of Allied armor.

1944
Wednesday
March 22nd

With mounting losses in both manpower and tanks, further Allied thrusts are called off.

1944
Thursday
March 23rd - May 10th

A lengthy six-week period allows the Allies to rebuild their forces - though this period allows the Germans to increase their defensive foothold.

1944
Thursday
March 30th

795 RAF bombers attack Nuremburg with 95 aircraft lost to action. This mission marks the biggest RAF loss to date.

1944
Thursday
March 30th - March 31st

Some 100 Avro Lancaster and Handley Page Halifax bombers mistakenly drop 400-tons of ordnance on Schweinfurt, thinking that it is their target of Nuremburg.

1944
Monday
April 3rd

The KMS Tirpitz is targeted once more and attack, this time by air elements of the Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm. The battleship lives through the attack but suffers three more months of repairs as a result.

1944
Monday
May 1st - May 31st

Plans begin for a major Soviet offensive against the German Army in the East.

1944
Monday
May 1st - July 31st

The upcoming invasion at Normany puts a temporary halt on further convoy runs into Russia.

1944
Thursday
May 11th

The fourth offensive to take Cassino is put into action.

1944
Thursday
May 11th

A combined British, Polish and American assault converge on Cassino involving the British 13th Corps, the Polish II Corps and the US 5th Army.

1944
Thursday
May 11th

Approximately 2,000 Allied artillery guns open up on Cassino.

1944
Saturday
May 13th

German paratrooper forces defending Cassino being their evacuation.

1944
Wednesday
May 17th

This date became one of the two best weather options for the Allied invasion of France.

1944
Wednesday
May 17th

Weather on May 17th cancels the D-Day operation. Leaving the next best weather window of opportunity to be June 5th.

1944
Wednesday
May 17th

June 5th is selected as the next official launch date for D-Day.

1944
Wednesday
May 17th

German paratrooper forces exit the Cassino region.

1944
Thursday
May 18th

The British take the town of Cassino.

1944
Thursday
May 18th

The Poles take Monte Calvario.

1944
Thursday
May 18th

Monte Cassino falls to the Allies, costing some 50,000 casualties along both sides of the battlefield.

1944
Saturday
May 20th

The Soviet offensive is detailed under the codename of "Operation Bagration".

1944
Saturday
May 20th

The launch date for Operation Bagration is set for June 22nd.

1944
Tuesday
May 23rd

The US VI Corps breaks out of the Anzio perimeter and takes ground well into the Alban Hills.

1944
Thursday
May 25th

The US VI Corps continues its gains and eventually combines with the arriving UU Corps. The road to Rome is now in the hands of the US Army and steps are taken for the final assault on the capital.

1944
Tuesday
June 6th

The British and Canadian forces out of Gold and Juno beaches enjoy the largest footholds in France, encompassing land holdings some 9 miles wide and 6.2 miles inland.

1944
Tuesday
June 6th

American forces at Utah beach hold pockets of land totaling just over 6 miles.

1944
Tuesday
June 6th

The first town in France - Ste Mere Eglise - is liberated by the Allies, this honor falling to the American forces from Utah beach and paratroopers from the previous day's drops.

1944
Tuesday
June 6th

Omaha statistics are grim and the group holds the least amount of real estate at just 4.3 miles across and 1.2 miles inland. However, they do hold positions in Vierville sur Mer, Colleville and St-Laurent sur Mer.

1944
Tuesday
June 6th

The Allied elements at Sword beach hold onto a 6-by-6 mile piece of land though they are still cut off from the Allies at Juno.

1944
Monday
June 19th

Soviet partisan groups spring into action along the German rear guard and wreak havoc for days. Targets include supply and communication lines. Tens of thousands of explosive acts of sabotage are noted.

1944
Thursday
June 22nd

Totaling over 1.2 million troops, the 1st Baltic Front - along with the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Belorussian Fronts - are put into action along four fronts. Vitebsk is quickly taken and controlled. The 3rd Panzer Army suffers heavy losses.

1944
Thursday
June 22nd

Operation Bagration is put into action with General Zhukov in command.

1944
Friday
June 23rd

The 1st and 3rd Belorussian Fronts advanced to northeast of Minsk, surrounding the German 4th Army.

1944
Friday
June 23rd

By this date, the partisan actions along the German rear dwindle in preparation for the upcoming offensive.

1944
Monday
June 26th

With the 1st and 2nd Belorussian Fronts closing, Hitler okays the order for the 9th Army to retreat to more favorable ground.

1944
Wednesday
June 28th

Hitler replaces Field Marshal Busch with General Model to help stem his losses.

1944
Thursday
June 29th

The Soviets take Bobruysk.

1944
Thursday
June 29th

The 1st and 2nd Belorussian Fronts close in and around the city of Minsk, attempting to join forces of the 3rd Belorussian Front.

1944
Friday
June 30th

By this date, the German Army has recorded some 200,000 casualties from the aggressive Soviet offensive.

1944
Saturday
July 1st

Plans by the Polish Army are laid out for a resistance and uprising in the Capital City of Warsaw against their German overseers.

1944
Saturday
July 1st

Lieutenant-General Komorowski heads up the resistance plans as Commander-in-Chief of the Polish Home Army in Warsaw.

1944
Tuesday
July 4th

German losses total 400,000 personnel.

1944
Tuesday
July 4th

By this date, the 160,000-strong German 4th Army alone reports losses of 130,000 troops.

1944
Tuesday
July 4th

Minsk falls to the Soviet offensive.

1944
Wednesday
July 5th

Encircled, remnants of the German 4th Army are captured or killed trying to flee.

1944
Friday
July 7th

After heavy bombing by British Royal Air Force elements, British and Canadian army forces regroup and begin their offensive to take Caen from the Germans.

1944
Tuesday
July 11th

The German 9th Army is obliterated under the might of the Red Army.

1944
Thursday
July 13th

Vilnius, Lithuania is captured by Soviet ground troops.

1944
Thursday
July 13th

A new Soviet land offensive is launched with elements of the Soviet 1st and 4th Ukranian Fronts. Their target is Germany Army Group North in the Ukraine on their way to southern Poland.

1944
Thursday
July 13th

A combined British and Canadian force is stopped outside of Caen by a determined German defense.

1944
Monday
July 17th

Some 57,000 German captives are paraded through the streets of Moscow.

1944
Monday
July 17th

White Russia is cleansed of all German invaders, leading celebrations in the Soviet capital of Moscow.

1944
Monday
July 17th

German Army Group Center is completely annihilated from the German ranks.

1944
Tuesday
July 18th

The British and Canadian launch Operation Goodwood against Caen. British armored elements are brought to bear against the dug-in and prepared Germans. The goal is to take all of Caen before focusing on Falaise.

1944
Tuesday
July 18th

US Army forces seize complete control of the town of St. Lo on the Contentin peninsula. Control of this strategic zone now allows for larger, prepared and controlled Allied offensives towards inland France.

1944
Thursday
July 20th

While the British 2nd Army and 2nd Canadian Division can now lay claim to Caen, they fall short of advancement against Falaise. As such, Operation Goodwood is stopped.

1944
Friday
July 21st

8th Air Force B-17 and B-24 bombers are launched on Schweinfurt.

1944
Monday
July 24th

American forces enact Operation Cobra, this stemming from control of the Contentin peninsula. The goal is to smash through the German defenses and create a road through the Avranches, exposing inland France to future Allied assaults.

1944
Wednesday
July 26th

The Polish government, in exile since the fall of their country to the invading Germans, communicates with the British government for help in staging the uprising.

1944
Thursday
July 27th

Lvov is clamed by the Ukranian Fronts.

1944
Thursday
July 27th

The British government promises what it can and this emerges in the form of scattered air drops of weapons and supplies.

1944
Friday
July 28th

Soviet forces lay claim to Brest-Litovsk.

1944
Sunday
July 30th

The German 7th Army attempts a counter-attack at Avranches but the Americans manage to hold their ground.

1944
Sunday
July 30th

US Army forces reach Avranches and lay control the region.

1944
Monday
July 31st

Soviet Army forces close in on German defenders in Warsaw.

1944
Tuesday
August 1st

Roughly 30,000 Poles and scattered firearms make up the beginning of the Warsaw Uprising.

1944
Tuesday
August 1st

US General George S. Patton and his 3rd Army manage their way through Avranches towards Liore and Brittany.

1944
Tuesday
August 1st

Uprisings begin across the Polish capital of Warsaw.

1944
Tuesday
August 1st

Upon hearing of news of the Polish uprising, an infuriated Adolph Hitler swears punishment and commits more of his troops within the Capital limits.

1944
Tuesday
August 1st

The move westward continues.

1944
Tuesday
August 1st

Three Soviet Army Fronts converge on the outskirts of Warsaw, prompting Polish General Komorowski to greenlight the uprising.

1944
Friday
August 4th

Realizing their chances of victory are slim against well-trained and well-armed Germans, Polish Authorities once again ask the Allies - including the Soviets - for assistance in maintaining the uprising.

1944
Friday
August 4th

Patton's 3rd Army arrived at Brittany. The German defense crumbles and relocates to defensive positions along the coast.

1944
Monday
August 7th

The 1st Canadian Army supports Allied elements just south of Caen, making their way towards Falaise.

1944
Monday
August 7th

A determined German counter-attack takes Mortain and heads towards Avranches before being stopped. Allied airstrikes and artillery stall the German advance.

1944
Tuesday
August 8th

General Patton reaches Le Mans and then heads north to Argentan.

1944
Tuesday
August 8th

US General Omar Bradley talks with British General Benard Law Montgomery about a plan to encircle some 21 divsions of Germans in the Falaise-Argentan pocket. Montgomery likes what he hears and give the plan the green light.

1944
Thursday
August 10th

German Army forces continue to relocate to Warsaw in an attempt to quell the Polish uprising.

1944
Friday
August 11th

Sensing complete destruction of Warsaw and its people, the Pope himself appeals to the Allies for help.

1944
Sunday
August 13th

Patton's 3rd Army arrives at Argentan.

1944
Monday
August 14th

Elements of Patton's 3rd Army are sent from Falaise to the east towards Chartres and in the direction of Paris proper.

1944
Tuesday
August 15th

Stretched and strained supply lines bring the Soviet war machine to a halt.

1944
Tuesday
August 15th - August 29th

During another running battle, convoy JW59 and her surface warships inflict damage on the KMS Tirpitz.

1944
Wednesday
August 16th

German forces in Falaise are given the okay from Hitler to retreat to a more favorable position. The encirclement of German forces prompts the action from High Command.

1944
Wednesday
August 16th

The American 3rd Army reaches Chartres.

1944
Wednesday
August 16th

After seven days of continuous and bitter fighting, Canadian Army forces reach Falaise.

1944
Sunday
August 20th

German Army soldiers now number some 21,300 personnel in Warsaw.

1944
Sunday
August 20th

The German Army begins their final push to crush the Polish response.

1944
Sunday
August 20th

The swift and thorough German response has divided the Polish resistance into three distinct groups, all cut off from one another.

1944
Sunday
August 20th

The Falaise pocket is finally closed by the Allies. American and Canadian forces meet to complete the encirclement. German forces in Normandy are now trapped.

1944
Tuesday
August 22nd

After some additional fighting that results in a further 10,000 German soldiers killed, the trapped elements of the German Army at Normandy surrender to the Allies. In all, some 50,000 soldiers of the German Army are taken prisoner.

1944
Friday
August 25th

The Germans begin their counter-offensive against the remaining Pole units.

1944
Friday
August 25th

SS Obergruppenfuhrer Erich von dem Bach-Zelweski details the final German push.

1944
Wednesday
August 30th

The massive Soviet offensive ends with much of the German-held territories now in Russian hands. The Soviet Army has made it as far as the outskirts of Warsaw in Poland with a front running from Lithuania in the north, through Belorussia in the center and Poland/Ukraine in the south.

1944
Saturday
September 16th

Polish Army units fighting alongside the Soviet Army make a dash to support their comrades in Warsaw, this against the orders of Soviet High Command.

1944
Sunday
September 17th

The US 101st Airborne Division landing at Eindhoven and Veghel are successful in their capturing of bridges.

1944
Sunday
September 17th

The US 82nd Airborne Division landing at Grave is successful in capturing its target bridge.

1944
Sunday
September 17th

British paratroopers landing at Arnhem run straight into the 9th and 10th SS Panzer Divisions who are in the area ungoing refitting. The bridge at Arnhem is captured by British forces but the group is quickly cut off from help by the Germans.

1944
Sunday
September 17th

Operation Market Garden is activated. Parachute landings take place at Eindhoven, Veghel, Grave and Oosterbeek.

1944
Sunday
September 17th

Under the command of Lieutenant-Colonel Zygmunt Berling, the 1st Polish Army forces engage the Germans in Warsaw but are ultimately driven back in retreat.

1944
Monday
September 18th

The British XXX Corps fights its way through a dedicated German resistance up the main artery road leading to Eindhoven. They finally unite with the 101st Airborne forces having landed at Eindhoven and Veghel.

1944
Wednesday
September 20th

The US 82nd Airborne, backed by the British XXX Corps, take the bridge over the Waal River at Nijmegen.

1944
Wednesday
September 20th

British XXX Corps is delayed a full day from reaching beleagured paratrooper forces at Arnhem.

1944
Thursday
September 21st

British XXX Corps is slowed down once more, this time by German anti-tank forces and artillery emplacements north of Nijmegen and along the route to Arnhem.

1944
Thursday
September 21st

British paratroopers at Arnhem give up control of their bridge against a stronger German foe and instead concentrate on surviving by utilizing the town of Arnhem itself as a defense.

1944
Friday
September 22nd

Elements of the Polish Parachute Brigade, delayed multiple times from earlier participation in the operation, finally land south of Arnhem. Their mission is to reinforce the battered British 1st Airborne Division.

1944
Monday
September 23rd

141 RAF bombers take on the Dortmund-Ems Canal. Some of these bombers make use of the massive "Tallboy" 12,000lb bomb.

1944
Monday
September 25th

At Arnhem, some 6,000 Allied soldiers are taken prison by the Germans. A further 1,000 lay dead from the fighting.

1944
Monday
September 25th

American air drops deliver their much-needed cargo to the Polish resistance below. However, the drop zones are in firm German control and supplies are captured soon after landing.

1944
Monday
September 25th

Remaining elements of the British 1st Airborne Division out of Arnhem make their way across the Neder Rijn River in retreat. They intend on meeting up with XXX Corps still making their way to the area.

1944
Wednesday
September 27th

Despite valliant actions, the Polish Parachute Brigade is forced to surrender at Arnhem.

1944
Wednesday
September 27th

South of Arnhem, Allied forces continue to hold their gains. Over the next few months, some 3,500 casualties will be counted.

1944
Monday
October 2nd

Polish General Komorowski, sensing total defeat imminent, orders his Polish insurgents to surrender to the Germans.

1944
Tuesday
October 3rd

Polish military forces all surrender to the German Army, ending the valliant uprising.

1944
Monday
October 9th

8th Air Force B-17 and B-24 bombers are once again launched on Schweinfurt.

1944
Tuesday
October 31st

Some 250,000 Polish civilians and soldiers of Warsaw will meet their end through execution or deportation to Nazi concentration camps as a result of the Warsaw uprising.

1944
Wednesday
November 1st - November 30th

As the German defensive circle shrinks througout Europe, the Artic Convoys enjoy their best month, seeing not one vessel lost to enemy action.

1944
Sunday
November 12th

The KMS Tirpitz is finally destroyed at Troms by forces of the RAF.

1944
Saturday
December 16th

Bad weather soon sets in over the Ardennes region, limiting Allied air support to counter the German advances.

1944
Saturday
December 16th

The German Army launch their Ardennes offensive against elements of the American US VIII located between Aachen and Bastogne.

1944
Saturday
December 16th

Initial progress on the assault is good for the Germans, however, the US 2nd and 99th Divisions hold fast at Elsenborn and Malmedy.

1944
Sunday
December 17th

Allied prisoners of war are executed in cold blood by elements of the 6th SS Panzer Army. Some 87 prisoners are killed where they stand on direct orders from German Colonel Joachim Peiper.

1944
Sunday
December 17th

The town of Stavelot is lost to the invading German Army.

1944
Tuesday
December 19th

Along the Ardennes line, US forces reform into intense defensive lines and some forces eventually mount counter attacks against the invading Germans.

1944
Tuesday
December 19th

Some 6,000 Allied troops surrender to the encircling German Army at Schnee Eiffel.

1944
Tuesday
December 19th

By this date, two components making up the US 106th Division at the Schnee Eiffel region are surrounded by the Germans.

1944
Tuesday
December 19th

The town of Stavelot is recaptured by the Allies.

1944
Tuesday
December 19th

Allied generals agree to commit elements of the Saar Front against the southern flanks of the German advance, this in the area between Bastogne and Echternach.

1944
Wednesday
December 20th

The US 10th and 19th Armored Divisions are completely encircled by the German advance.

1944
Wednesday
December 20th

By this date, the 101st Airborne Division at Bastogne is completely encircled by the German XLVII Panzer Corps.

1944
Wednesday
December 20th

British General Montgomery is charged with heading up the progress along the north line of defense while American General Bradley is given command of the south.

1944
Friday
December 22nd

As the German advance continues, supply lines are stretched to the limit and flanks become over exposed prompting German General Rundstedt to ask Hitler to halt the advance - Hitler refuses.

1944
Saturday
December 23rd

Allied ground attack fighters target and destroy German ground vehicles and troop concentrations. Without air support of their own, there is little that the Germans can do in response.

1944
Saturday
December 23rd

Supplies are dropped from Allied transport planes to the beleagured forces held up at Bastogne.

1944
Saturday
December 23rd

2,000 Allied air sorties are launched in improving skies against the Germans on the ground.

1944
Saturday
December 23rd

The foul weather over the Ardennes begins to clear.

1944
Monday
December 25th

After achieving 60 miles of territory - the farthest march of the German Ardennes Offensive - the 2nd Panzer Division under Lieutenant-General von Lauchert is stopped by a combined force of British and American armor made up of the British 29th Armored Brigade and the American 2nd Armored Division.

1944
Monday
December 25th

German losses on Christmas Day include 3,500 infantrymen and 400 vehicles, 81 of these being tanks.

1944
Tuesday
December 26th

The American 4th Armored Division makes its way to the beleagured 101st Airborne forces at Bastogne and the situation at the village is stabilized.

1944
Thursday
December 28th

Hitler orders a halt to the advance - but no retreat - leaving his exposed and tired units at the mercy of the replenished Allied forces across the Ardennes Front.

1945
Monday
January 1st

Weeks of fighting see German forces destroyed, taken prisoner or sent packing as the Allies regroup and respond.

1945
Saturday
January 6th

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in the west coordinates via telegram with Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in the east on launching a combined January offensive. Churchill plans on the 20th as the target date.

1945
Sunday
January 7th

Stalin moves the offensive launch date forward to January 12th.

1945
Friday
January 12th

The Red Army enacts a massive offensive against German foes along the East Front. His targets are German Army Group A and Army Group Center located in East Prussia and Poland. The battle line is a long running front from the Lithuanian coast down to the Balkans region.

1945
Friday
January 12th

The Red Army offensive is spear-headed by the 1st, 2nd and 3rd Belorussian Fronts as well as the 1st Baltic Front joined by the 1st Ukrainian Front.

1945
Sunday
January 14th

Initial thrusts by the Soviet Army prove positive against the German defense.

1945
Tuesday
January 16th

Adoph Hitler reorders his forces, weakening key areas of defense, to attempt a flanking manuever against the Red Army near Poznan.

1945
Wednesday
January 17th

The Polish capital city of Warsaw officially falls to the advancing Soviet Army.

1945
Wednesday
January 17th

Soviet forces engage German foes in East Prussia with gains being made towards Danzig and Konigsberg.

1945
Saturday
January 20th

Hitler orders his 6th SS Panzer Army out of the Ardennes forrest on the West Front towards Budapest, Hungary in the east.

1945
Monday
January 22nd

Soviet General Konev and his 1st Ukranian Front cross the Oder River at Steinau.

1945
Thursday
January 25th

Hitler reorganizes his forces under the new names of Army Group North, Army Group Center and Army Group Vistula.

1945
Thursday
February 1st

German forces at Kustrin derail any further Soviet advance towards Berlin. General Zhukov's 1st Belorussian Front is halted.

1945
Saturday
February 3rd

General Zhukov and his 1st Belorussian Front combine forces with General Konev's 1st Ukrainian Front along the Oder River near Kustrin.

1945
Saturday
February 3rd

The Soviet front lines total some 50 miles along the Oder River by this time.

1945
Monday
February 5th

Soviet Army forces begin to cross the Oder River into Germany.

1945
Wednesday
February 7th

By this date, all of the German gains of the Ardennes Offensive have been erased.

1945
Wednesday
February 7th

The German loss of life is a staggering 82,000 men, matched only by the 77,000 casualties suffered by the American Army.

1945
Tuesday
February 13th

805 RAF bombers level the German city of Dresden, killing up to 130,000 of its inhabitants. The attack is notable for Dresden held little to no military or strategic value for Germany.

1945
Thursday
February 15th

The German city of Breslau is surrounded by Soviet troops.

1945
Thursday
February 22nd

Poznan falls to the Soviet Army after the defending German troops surrender.

1945
Saturday
February 24th

General Konev's 1st Ukranian Front claims Lower Silesia.

1945
Friday
March 16th

From Hungary, Soviet Army groups begin their offensive into Austria along the Danube River. The target is Vienna.

1945
Saturday
March 31st

The Soviet Front gains tremendous ground since the start of the offensive back in January. Forces are a mere 50 miles from Berlin.

1945
Saturday
March 31st

Preparations for the final battle of Berlin are made.

1945
Sunday
April 1st - April 30th

The USN is credited with sinking four German U-boats in what turns out to be the last recorded combat actions in the Atlantic Theater of War.

1945
Sunday
April 1st - April 31st

The final raid, this by American medium bombers, is launched against Schweinfurt.

1945
Monday
April 16th

The Soviet Army begins its Berlin campaign with spectacular display of artillery, exploding targets throughout Berlin and its surrounding areas. The bombardment signals the beginning of the offensive to take the German capital.

1945
Monday
April 20th

Adolph Hitler celebrates his final (56th) birthday, seemingly unaware of the fate to befall him and his Germany.

1945
Monday
April 20th

Soviet Army groups advance against German defenses at the Oder River.

1945
Tuesday
April 21st

General Zhukov and his 1st Belorussian army break into the Berlin suburbs.

1945
Wednesday
April 22nd

Soviet leader Stalin sends his final assault orders to generals Zhukov and Koniev.

1945
Thursday
April 23rd

The Berlin suburbs gradually fall under Soviet control as fighting rages on everywhere.

1945
Friday
April 24th

The British Royal Air Force slow down the 12th Army offensive through intense bombing.

1945
Friday
April 24th

German General Wenck of the 12th Army launches a futile counter-offensive against the Soviet onslaught.

1945
Saturday
April 25th

The 1st Belorussian Front meets up with the st Ukranian Front, formally encircling Berlin.

1945
Saturday
April 25th

Some 30,000 German soldiers ready themselves for the bloody business of the day.

1945
Saturday
April 25th

Over 2 million Berlin civilians hunker down for the violent fighting ahead.

1945
Saturday
April 25th

All access points west of the German capital are cutt off by Soviet forces.

1945
Sunday
April 26th

Twin Soviet offensives break the final defensive fronts of the Germans.

1945
Sunday
April 26th

Soviet forces advance across the Spree River.

1945
Sunday
April 26th

Soviet forces advance towards Unter den Linden.

1945
Monday
April 27th

General Wenck's 12th Army is halted by the Soviet Army.

1945
Monday
April 27th

The Soviet Army remains just 15 miles from the center of Berlin.

1945
Monday
April 27th

German soldiers set up defensive areas across a small 10 mile long front for their ultimate "last stand".

1945
Monday
April 30th

The bodies of Adolph Hitler and Eva Braun are taken to the Chancellery Gardens and incinerated under previous orders from Hitler, this to avoid capture and ultimate humiliation at the hands of the progressing Soviet Army.

1945
Monday
April 30th

The Soviets capture the Reichstag.

1945
Monday
April 30th

German leader Adolph Hitler weds his mistress, Eva Braun, in his underground bunker under Berlin. After giving a final speech to his remaining supporters, he poisons his dog, then Braun and ultimately takes his own life. In his will, he leaves his authority to Admiral Doenitz.

1945
Tuesday
May 1st

Berlin formally and unconditionally surrenders to the Soviet legions and Western Allies. General Jodl signs for the defeated Germans and Generals Bedell Smith and Suslaparov for the Allies.

1945
Tuesday
May 1st

German propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels murders his wife and six children before taking his own life.

1945
Tuesday
May 1st

General Chuikov makes his way into the center of Berlin.

1945
Tuesday
May 1st

German Generaloberst Hans Krebs approaches Chuikov with the formal German surrender.

1945
Tuesday
May 1st

By May of 1945, the U-boat scourge in the Atlantic is over, completing one of the more important battles in all of World War 2.

1945
Tuesday
May 1st

Soviet artillery opens up once again, this time in a massive barrage against the Chancellery and surrounding areas.

1945
Wednesday
May 2nd

German forces across Berlin begin surrendering.

1945
Wednesday
May 2nd

The Fall of Berlin is complete - Soviet forces occupy all major sections of the German capital.

1945
Wednesday
May 2nd

The war in Europe officially comes to a close.

1945
Tuesday
May 8th

This day is formally announced as "VE Day" and celebrations break out across the world, though fighting in the Pacific against the Japanese Empire is ongoing.