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Battle of the Bulge Timeline

Authored By Dan Alex | Last Updated: 5/12/2014

In one final, desperate gamble of the war, Hitler enacted his Ardennes Offensive and drove a wedge into the Allied lines towards Antwerp.

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By the end of 1944, the Allied advance across Europe was such that the front was held in check at its ends by two large armies - the Canadians and English to the North and the Americans and General Patton to the south. While the Canadian and English forces succeeded in taking the critical port-city of Antwerp from the Germans, the Americans shored up the battle lines and were now targeting the ever-important Rhone River with German territory just beyond. In between the two concentrated forces lay a thin line of some 80,000 Allied troops.


The reason for this thin grouping of support was largely explained by its location, this in the thick of the seemingly impenetrable Ardennes Forest. It was a long-held belief that the area was ill-suited for any sort of open warfare and the Allies utilized this feeling and the surrounding terrain to concentrate critical forces to the fighting elsewhere along the Front.


However, Hitler had developed other plans when constructing his Ardennes Offensive. The ultimate goal was to reach the post city of Antwerp and disrupt the Allied front and their much-needed supply lines along the way. The hope was to split the Canadian, British and American forces from one another and their logistical means to stay alive, thusly providing Germany with the element of surprise and a foothold to mounting a future assault to drive the enemy back. The selection of enacting the assault during the European Winter would only add to the element of surprise.


The surprise was unveiled on December 16th, 1944 when the German Army opened up in one of their largest displays of artillery bombardment ever. Mechanized forces of the German 5th and 15th Panzer armies, as well as the 6th SS and 7th Army, attacked the US VIII forces in a line between Aachen and Bastogne. The German surprise held up well and the Allies reeled at the advance. However, some contingents such as the US 2nd Division at Elsenborn and 99th Division at Malmedy held their ground. The last German blitzkrieg was underway as a grand total of 200,000 German personnel were mustered into a singular fighting force, encompassing both battle-hardened troops such as those of the Waffen-SS and non-combatants from across the German territories.


Part of the German advance was led by the cold and calculating Colonel Joachim Peiper who saw it fit to order his troops to execute any prisoners they take. Some 100 Americans alone were shot where they stood at Malmedy, this under the direct order of Peiper himself. While this soothed his embittered German troops to an extent, it only served to rile the Americans who, having received word of the atrocities, now produced an unparalleled fighting spirit when facing the Germans.


Both forces inevitably butted heads at the small town of Bastogne. The Germans were held in place by Allied tank destroyers and determination while the Americans dug in for weeks of intense fighting utilizing whatever cover and supplies were made available. American General Omar Bradley ultimately recognized Bastogne to be the battlefield of choice by the Germans and committed elements of General Courtney Hodges' 1st Army and General Patton's 4th Armored Division to the town in an effort head off any further German advance. Allied reserves were called into play and the fabled 101st Airborne ("The Battered Bastards of the 101") was airdropped into Bastogne to aid in its defense - and make military history in the process. The 82nd Airborne took the task at St Vith.


The Allied lines were fractured and independent defenses soon sprung about. Poor weather cover ensured that the Allied would not be counting on air support for the time being. Being that the Germans had lost air superiority by this time, the playing field was more or less leveled. Instead, Allied artillery hammered at the flanks of the German advance where possible and the German thrust was eventually held before reaching Dinant, some 60 miles from the Ardennes Offensive starting point. After holding onto Bastogne for a full week while being encircled by the German Army, the 101st repelled the final german thrust. The very next day, Patton's armor arrived to ensure the town was firmly in Allied hands. In true airborne style, the 101st never admitted to needing any such help from Patton's armored forces.


British General Montgomery's 29th Armored Brigade met up with the American 2nd Armored Division to hold the point of deepest German penetration in check. The Battle of the Bulge - the last major German offensive - was stopped. By mid-February of 1945, all gains by the German Army were undone and the war would be over by the end of April with Hitler dead by his own hand.


The Ardennes Offensive would cost Germany some 88,000 of her soldiers while American paid the hefty toll of losing 77,000 of her own sons.


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There are a total of 25 the Battle of the Bulge Timeline Events. Entries are listed below by date of occurrence.

1944
Saturday
December 16th

The German Army launch their Ardennes offensive against elements of the American US VIII located between Aachen and Bastogne.

1944
Saturday
December 16th

Initial progress on the assault is good for the Germans, however, the US 2nd and 99th Divisions hold fast at Elsenborn and Malmedy.

1944
Saturday
December 16th

Bad weather soon sets in over the Ardennes region, limiting Allied air support to counter the German advances.

1944
Sunday
December 17th

Allied prisoners of war are executed in cold blood by elements of the 6th SS Panzer Army. Some 87 prisoners are killed where they stand on direct orders from German Colonel Joachim Peiper.

1944
Sunday
December 17th

The town of Stavelot is lost to the invading German Army.

1944
Tuesday
December 19th

By this date, two components making up the US 106th Division at the Schnee Eiffel region are surrounded by the Germans.

1944
Tuesday
December 19th

Some 6,000 Allied troops surrender to the encircling German Army at Schnee Eiffel.

1944
Tuesday
December 19th

Along the Ardennes line, US forces reform into intense defensive lines and some forces eventually mount counter attacks against the invading Germans.

1944
Tuesday
December 19th

The town of Stavelot is recaptured by the Allies.

1944
Tuesday
December 19th

Allied generals agree to commit elements of the Saar Front against the southern flanks of the German advance, this in the area between Bastogne and Echternach.

1944
Wednesday
December 20th

By this date, the 101st Airborne Division at Bastogne is completely encircled by the German XLVII Panzer Corps.

1944
Wednesday
December 20th

The US 10th and 19th Armored Divisions are completely encircled by the German advance.

1944
Wednesday
December 20th

British General Montgomery is charged with heading up the progress along the north line of defense while American General Bradley is given command of the south.

1944
Friday
December 22nd

As the German advance continues, supply lines are stretched to the limit and flanks become over exposed prompting German General Rundstedt to ask Hitler to halt the advance - Hitler refuses.

1944
Saturday
December 23rd

The foul weather over the Ardennes begins to clear.

1944
Saturday
December 23rd

2,000 Allied air sorties are launched in improving skies against the Germans on the ground.

1944
Saturday
December 23rd

Supplies are dropped from Allied transport planes to the beleagured forces held up at Bastogne.

1944
Saturday
December 23rd

Allied ground attack fighters target and destroy German ground vehicles and troop concentrations. Without air support of their own, there is little that the Germans can do in response.

1944
Monday
December 25th

After achieving 60 miles of territory - the farthest march of the German Ardennes Offensive - the 2nd Panzer Division under Lieutenant-General von Lauchert is stopped by a combined force of British and American armor made up of the British 29th Armored Brigade and the American 2nd Armored Division.

1944
Monday
December 25th

German losses on Christmas Day include 3,500 infantrymen and 400 vehicles, 81 of these being tanks.

1944
Tuesday
December 26th

The American 4th Armored Division makes its way to the beleagured 101st Airborne forces at Bastogne and the situation at the village is stabilized.

1944
Thursday
December 28th

Hitler orders a halt to the advance - but no retreat - leaving his exposed and tired units at the mercy of the replenished Allied forces across the Ardennes Front.

1945
Monday
January 1st

Weeks of fighting see German forces destroyed, taken prisoner or sent packing as the Allies regroup and respond.

1945
Wednesday
February 7th

By this date, all of the German gains of the Ardennes Offensive have been erased.

1945
Wednesday
February 7th

The German loss of life is a staggering 82,000 men, matched only by the 77,000 casualties suffered by the American Army.